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notes_1 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 Overview...

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Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 a39 a38 a36 a37 Overview of Today’s Lecture Reggae Week: Today — Bob Marley, Acoustic Medley Administrative Stuff (lots of it) Course Website/Syllabus [ i.e. , syllabus handout] * Textbook & Supplemental Materials * What, When, Where, Why? * Grades, Assignments, Exams, and all that. . . * Group Work and Individual Work * Tentative Course Schedule [ + Home Page, bspace site, Email] * MacLogic Software (more on this later in the course) Please fill-out an index card with the following information: * Name, SID, year, major, section preferences. Rank these times: · . . . times here . . . Introduction to the Course & Chapter 1 of Forbes UCB Philosophy Administration/Introduction 08/27/08
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Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 2 a39 a38 a36 a37 What Logic is Not Often, people will say: “That person is logical” or “That decision is logical”, etc. What they mean is that the person/decision/etc is reasonable or rational . Logic (in our sense) has little to do with this. Logic is not about people or how they think or how they ought to think. How people actually think is a psychological question. How people ought to think is an epistemological (or perhaps ethical ) question. Logic is abstract. It is not about concrete entities. In this sense, it is like mathematics. But, it is more basic and fundamental than mathematics. Logic is not about debating or arguing. It is also not about persuading or convincing people of things (or any human activities, for that matter). Logic is not empirical (like physics). Nor is it subjective (like, perhaps, matters of taste). It isn’t mysterious or unclear either. So, what is it? UCB Philosophy Administration/Introduction 08/27/08
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Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 3 a39 a38 a36 a37 Background 1: Propositions and Sentences Propositions are the basic units of logical analysis. They are expressed by declarative sentences like “Snow is white.” Not all sentences express propositions ( e.g. , “What time is it?”). Propositions are not identical to declarative sentences that express them. Consider: “Snow is white” and “Schnee ist weiß.” Propositions are either true or false (not both). True and False are called truth-values . Propositions have exactly one truth-value. The truth-value of a proposition is objective . That is, whether a proposition is true or false (in a given situation) does not depend on what anyone thinks about that proposition or on how that proposition happens to be expressed. Even if a proposition is about something subjective, its truth-value remains objective ( e.g. , Branden believes that the Yankees will win.) UCB Philosophy Administration/Introduction 08/27/08
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Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 4 a39 a38 a36 a37 Background 2: Actual, Possible, and Necessary Truth Some propositions are actually true (Snow is white), and some are not (Al Gore is President of the United States in 2007).
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