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notes_5_2x2 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 ✬...

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Unformatted text preview: Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 ✬ ✫ ✩ ✪ Announcements & Such • Cymande : Dove • Administrative Stuff ☞ MOVED! Starting Today (9/8), lectures will be in 145 Dwinelle. – Permanent locations for all sections are now known (see website). – HW #1 will be returned Wed. Re-subs due Friday (4pm, drop box). ☞ Homework formatting. From now on, please put: * Name, GSI, section time, and date. on all assignments and exams (upper-right corner of first page). • Introduction to the Course & Chapter 1 of Forbes – Chapter 2 — The Language of Sentential Logic (LSL) – Today: syntax, use/mention, and intro. to symbolization UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 Intro. 09/08/08 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 2 ✬ ✫ Abstract Argument Logical Form LSL / LMPL / LFOL Symbolization Chapters 2 , 5 & 7 English Argument Valid Form? Deciding Formal Validity Chapters 3, 4, 6 & 8 Valid English Argument? Valid Abstract Argument? Articulation of Thought in English UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 Intro. 09/08/08 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 3 ✬ ✫ ✩ ✪ Introduction to the Syntax of the LSL: The Lexicon • The syntax of LSL is quite simple. Its lexicon has the following symbols: – Upper-case letters ‘ A ’, ‘ B ’, . . . which stand for basic sentences . – Five sentential connectives / operators (one unary , four binary ): Operator Name Logical Function Used to translate ‘ ∼ ’ tilde negation not, it is not the case that ‘&’ ampersand conjunction and, also, moreover, but ‘ ∨ ’ vee disjunction or, either . . . or . . . ‘ → ’ arrow conditional if . . . then . . . , only if ‘ ↔ ’ double arrow biconditional if and only if – Parentheses ‘(’, ‘)’, brackets ‘[’. ‘]’, and braces ‘{’, ‘}’ for grouping. • If a string of symbols contains anything else, then it’s not a sentence of LSL. And, only certain strings of these symbols are LSL sentences. • Some LSL symbol strings aren’t well-formed : ‘ (A & B ’, ‘ A & B ∨ C ’, etc . UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 Intro. 09/08/08 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 4 ✬ ✫ Digression: The Use/Mention Distinction • Consider the following two sentences: (1) California has more than nine residents. (2) ‘California’ has more than nine letters. • In (1), we are using the word ‘California’ to talk about the State of California. But, in (2), we are merely mentioning the word ‘California’ ( i.e. , we’re talking about the word itself ). • If Jeremiah = ‘California’, which of these sentences are true? (3) Jeremiah has (exactly) eight letters [false]. (4) Jeremiah has (exactly) ten letters [true]. (5) ‘Jeremiah’ has eight letters [true]....
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2009 for the course PHIL 12A taught by Professor Fitelson during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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notes_5_2x2 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 ✬...

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