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notes_6_2x2 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 Announcements & Such Allman Brothers Band : Whipping Post (Jam) Administrative Stuff Permanent locations for all sections are now known (see website). Ive added a link to L A T E X for Logicians to our website. HW #1 will be returned today. Re-subs due Friday (4pm, drop box). Homework formatting. From now on, please put: Name, GSI, section time, and date. on all assignments and exams (upper-right corner of first page). Chapter 2 (LSL), Continued Today: Symbolization from English to LSL Negation and conjunction (uncontroversial) Disjunction: inclusive and exclusive (only a slight complication) The Conditional: controversial (our Fundamental Idealization, again) UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 09/10/08 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 2 English LSL II: Symbolizing in Two Stages When symbolizing English sentences in LSL (especially complex ones), it is useful to perform the symbolization in (at least) two stages . Stage 1 : Replace all basic sentences (explicit or implicit) with atomic letters. This yields a sentence in Logish (neither English nor LSL). Stage 2 : Eliminate remaining English by replacing English connectives with LSL connectives, and properly grouping the resulting symbolic expression (w/parens, etc .) to yield pure LSL. Here are some simple examples involving only single connectives: English: Logish: LSL: Either its raining or its snowing. If Dell introduces a new line, then Apple will also. Snow is white and the sky is blue. It is not the case that Emily Bronte wrote Jane Eyre . John is a bachelor if and only if he is unmarried. Either R or S . If D , then A . W and B . It is not the case that E . J if and only if not M . R S D A W & B E J M UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 09/10/08 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 3 English LSL III: Symbolizations involving & and We use & to symbolize a variety of English connectives, including: and, yet, but, however, moreover, nevertheless, still, also, although, both, additionally, furthermore (and others) There is often more to the meaning of but, nevertheless, still, although, however (and other such English connectives) than merely and. But, in LSL, the closest we can get to these connectives is &. On the other hand, there are fewer English expressions that we will symbolize using . Typically, these involve either or or either . . . or. But, less typically and more controversially, there is one other English connective we will symbolize as , and that is unless. Seem strange?...
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notes_6_2x2 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1...

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