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notes_8_2x2 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1& $...

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Unformatted text preview: Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 ' & $ % Announcements & Such • John Coltrane : Summertime • Administrative Stuff – HW #2 has been posted. It’s due (first submission) Friday. – See my “HW Tips & Guidelines” Handout, pertaining to HW #2. – I’ve posted the solutions for HW #1. – I recommend Schaum’s Outline of Logic (or any other introductory symbolic logic textbook) for additional solved problems. • Chapter 2 (LSL), Continued — More Symbolization from English to LSL – Symbolizing English sentences into LSL. * Rules for (verbatim) symbolization of sentences “in a vacuum”. * Deciding on atomic sentence lexicon is often the hard part. – Symbolizing entire English arguments into LSL. * Symbolizing sentences in the context of an argument . * Here, we have a principle of charity for argument symbolization. UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 09/15/08 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 2 ' & English ֏ LSL II ( ∼ , & , ↔ ): Example #2 • ‘If, but only if, they have made no commitment to the contrary, may reporters reveal their sources, but they always make such a commitment and they ought to respect it.’ – Step 0: Decide on atomic sentences and letters. S : Reporters may reveal their sources. C : Reporters have made a commitment to protect their sources. R : Reporters ought to respect their commitment to protect sources. – Step 1: Substitute into English, yielding “Logish”: If, but only if, it is not the case that C , then S , but C and R . – Step 2: make the transition into LSL (in stages as well, perhaps): S iff not C , but C and R . Final Product: (S ↔ ∼ C) & (C & R) UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 09/15/08 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 3 ' & $ % English ֏ LSL II ( ∼ , & , ∨ , → , ↔ ): Example #3 • ‘Sara is going unless either Richard or Pam is going, and Sara is not going if, and only if, neither Pam nor Quincy are going.’ – Step 0: Decide on atomic sentences and letters. P : Pam is going. Q : Quincy is going. R : Richard is going. S : Sam is going. – Step 1: Substitute into English, yielding “Logish”: S unless either R or P , and not S iff neither P nor Q . – Step 2: Make the transition into LSL (in stages again): S unless ( R ∨ P ), and ∼ S iff ( ∼ P & ∼ Q ) ( ∼ (R ∨ P ) → S) & ( ∼ S ↔ ( ∼ P & ∼ Q)) • It is also acceptable to replace the ‘unless’ with ’ ∨ ’, yielding: (S ∨ (R ∨ P )) & ( ∼ S ↔ ( ∼ P & ∼ Q)) UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 09/15/08 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 4 ' & English ֏ LSL VIII: Some More Problems to Try • A Bunch of LSL Symbolization Problems: 1. California does not allow smoking in restaurants. 2. Jennifer Lopez becomes a superstar given that I’m Real goes platinum....
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notes_8_2x2 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1& $...

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