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lecture5 - Membranes and Transport Basic Properties of...

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Membranes and Transport: Basic Properties of Membranes
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Functions of Cell Membranes Separate internal environment from external environment. Provide a selective barrier: allow only certain molecules to pass through.
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Membranes are Composed of Lipids A lipid is an organic biological compound, that is primarily non-polar and hydrophobic. Types of lipids: – Fats and oils (triglycerides) – Phospholipids (IMPORTANT IN MEMBRANES) – Steroids (Like Cholesterol)
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Isoprene subunits can form long chains HO CH 3 CH 3 Steroids (this is cholesterol) P O O O O CH 2 H 2 C C O O H CH 2 C H H 2 C O O O OC C O Serine CH 2 C H O O H 2 C O O C O C O C C O HO Phosphate Glycerol Fatty acid Fats Phospholipids P O O O
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Polar head (hydrophilic) Nonpolar tail (hydrophobic) Glycerol Phosphate Serine Fatty acid Fatty acid Formula Schematic Space-filling Icon CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 C O C O O O C H 2 C CH 2 H O O O P O CH 2 NH 3 + HC COOH Phospholipid
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Formula Schematic Space-filling Polar (hydrophilic) Nonpolar (hydrophobic) Steroid rings Tail HO CH 3 CH 2 H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 Icon Cholesterol
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Membranes are Composed of Lipids Membrane lipids are amphipathic. – Micelles: vesicles in which polar head groups of lipids face the external aqueous solution and hydrophobic tails collect together inside. Amphipathic lipids can form a bilayer structure in an aqueous solution . – Liposomes: vesicles composed of a bilayer enclosing an internal aqueous solution.
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Water No water Serine Phosphate Hydrophilic heads interact with water Hydrophobic tails interact with each other Hydrophilic heads interact with water Lipid micelles Lipid bilayers
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Lipids and water form tiny compartments Red blood cells
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62.5 nm Water Water 62.5 nm Liposomes: Artificial membrane-bound vesicles
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