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ALCOHOL AND RELATED SEDATIVE-HYPNOTIC DRUGS “alcohol” o Arabic “al-kuhul”=fine powdered antimony, fine essence, essential spirit o ethyl alcohol=ethanol o lease poisonous of all alcohols o structure o connector: equally soluble in watery and oily things o produced by fermentation of sugars by yeast [ Saccharomyces cerevisiae ] o fermentation=(anaerobic) degradation of glucose and other sugars to obtain energy (to reproduce/multiply) o byproducts/waste: other interesting molecules produced, e.g. ethanol Alcohol Content o straight fermentation not > ~15-20% (yeast will die in own waste) o distillation distillare=to drip down ~1000-15000 years ago boiling alcohol off and collecting it makes more concentrated alcohol “The Art of Distillation” or A Treatise…Physick. by John French of London spirits = distilled alcoholic beverages (see below) o proof=percent alcohol x 2 gun powder test: when it “poofs,” the alcohol content is “just right” = 100 proof Alcoholic Beverages o wine honey (mead), grapes, apples, other fruit, rice (sake) enough sugar for yeast to act upon alcohol content ~8-18% o beer, ale, malt liquor beer w/ more alcohol content than state limit (U.S.) grains: barley [ Hordeum vulgare ] (high quality), wheat corn, rice, etc. malting=sprouting grain and breakdown of complex carbs. =chewing alcohol content ~3-9% o beer admixtures henbane (solanaceous), wormwood, rosemary, opium poppy, cannabis, ginger, dandelion… 18
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ALCOHOL AND RELATED SEDATIVE-HYPNOTIC DRUGS hops= Humulus lupulus bitter flavor antibacterial, bitter, digestive aid o spirits= distilled alcoholic beverages brandy, cognac, etc (grapes) whiskey (roasted grain) vodka multiple distillations, gin (grain, potato) mescal, tequila (agave) rum (sugar cane) alcohol content ~ 25-50%! o aqua vitae highly distilled alcohol up to ~ 95% (other 5%= water) 95% threshold b/c AZEOTROPE= no more change on/after boiling therefore, up to 190 proof! Standard Drink Sizes o “one standard drink” one 12oz beer one glass 4oz wine 1oz spirits o “one drink” every 1-2 hours to be eliminated and totally metabolized Metabolism of Alcohol o takes place metabolism in the liver (1
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2009 for the course MCB 62 taught by Professor Presti during the Fall '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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