Evolution1 - Evolution#1 The Big Picture the Big...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Levels of biological organization 1. the biosphere = land, water, atmosphere 2. 3. communities = entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem 4. populations = all individuals of a species living w/in the bounds of a specified area 5. organisms = individual living things 6. organs & organ systems = body part consisting of ≥2 tissues; team of organs that cooperate in a specific function 7. tissues = group of similar cells 8. 9. organelles = various functional components that make up cells 10. molecules = chemical structures consisting of ≥2 small chemical units (atoms) A closer look at ecosystems ecosystem dynamics: 2 major processes cycling of nutrients flow of E from sunlight producers consumers energy conversion E provides work provides life activities exchange of E between an organism and its surroundings involves transformation of one form of E to another (solar, chemical, kinetic) in E conversions, some of E is converted to / dissipated as heat (thermal E) in contrast to nutrient cycling, E flows one way thru system (light heat) A closer look at cells cell = lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life the cell’s heritable info chromosomes partly made of DNA DNA is the substance of genes genes are the units of inheritance i. each chromosome has 1 v. long DNA molecule ii. DNA molecule has 00s, 000s genes arranged along its length iii. genes along molecule encode info for building cell’s other molecules DNA directs the development and maintenance of the entire organism molecular structure of DNA accounts for its info-rich nature i. each DNA molecule made of 2 long chains arranged into double helix ii. each link of a chain is ¼ kinds of chemical building blocks (nucleotides) iii. nucleotides = alphabet of inheritance (GACT) iv. specific sequential arrangements of these nucleotides encode the precise info in genes v. genes are typically 00s, 000s nucleotides long vi. genes program cell’s production of large molecules (proteins)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
vii. sequence of nucleotides along each gene codes for a specific protein w/ a unique shape & function in the cell almost all cellular activities involve the action of ≥1 proteins DNA provides the heritable blueprints, but proteins are the tools that all forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code genome = entire “library” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits chromosomes of each human cells pack a genome about 3 billion nucleotides long eukaryotic cell i. subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane- enclosed organelles ii. largest organelle = nucleus = contains cell’s DNA as chromosomal
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 09/24/2009 for the course BIO 1B taught by Professor Carlson,mischel,power during the Fall '07 term at Berkeley.

Page1 / 8

Evolution1 - Evolution#1 The Big Picture the Big...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online