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Final Review - Final Review 1st Midterm History of...

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Final Review 1 st  Midterm History of Scientific Method Charles Sander Peirce a. Authority – simplest way to create a belief is to take someone else’s word for it b. A Priori- propositions that seem reasonable are believed Inductive reasoning –reasoning proceeds from data to general theory (specific to broad) Deductive reasoning – reasoning proceeds from theory to specific data (broad to specific) Explanation for behavior Evolutionary Explanation Developmental Explanation Physiological Explanation Mapping the Brian EEG MEG – records electrical and magnetic activity in the brain BUT does not allow the  viewing of brain activity PET – Provides a high-res picture of the brain using radioactivity from chemicals  injected into the blood fMRI – use magnetic detectors outside the head to measure the amounts of hemoglobin  and oxygen in different areas of the brain Nervous System Central  Peripheral Somatic – voluntary movement Autonomic Sympathetic – arousing Parasympathetic – calming Nerve Cells Glia Neurons Dendrites
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Cell Body Axon (Myelin sheath) Terminal branches of axon Neurotransmitter Serotonin – mood regulation Dopamine – involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease Plasticity – Brain’s ability to modify itself after some type of injury. Sensation Receptors Transduction Vision Wavelength (hue/color) Amplitude (intensity/ brightness) Eyes Pupil – Opening that allows light to enter Iris – Muscle that expands and contracts the pupil Cornea – Transparent tissue where light enters the eye Lens – focuses the light on the retina Retina – contains sensory receptors that process visual info and sends it to the brain Vision Optic Nerves – carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain Blindspot – point where the optic nerve leaves the eye b/c there are no receptor cells  there Disorders of Vision Presbyopia – ppl age and the lens decrease in flexibility Myopia – nearsightedness Hyperopia – farsightedness Glaucoma – pressure in the eyeball = damage to optic nerve and loss of peripheral vision Cataract – cloudy film over the lens Dark Adaptation
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Retinaldehydes – Rods Visual Information Processing Parallel Processing Color Motion Form Depth Color Vision Red v Green Yellow v Blue White v Black Color Vision 1. Trichromatic Theory: short waves are seen as blue, medium are seen as green, long  are seen as red a. Color blindness supports this i. Protanopia – lack long wave lengths ii. Deuteranopia – lack medium iii. Trianopia – lack short 2. Opponent – Process Theory: system paired 3. Retinex Theory: retina + cortex a. Different light but same color The Ear 1.
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