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Programming for High Performance - An Introduction © Thomas Ludwig, 2000 (1/146) Thomas Ludwig Technische Universität München [email protected] http://www.in.tum.de/~ludwig Version September 27, 2000 Programming for High Performance An Introduction
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Programming for High Performance - An Introduction © Thomas Ludwig, 2000 (2/146) Tell me why! High performance computing is essential in many fields of natural sciences: physics, chemistry, biology, etc. Real high performance can only be achieved with high performance computers Various hardware architectures exist Various software concepts are available A concise selection of hardware and software is inevitable for high efficiency of the parallel program Plus: lessons learnt here can also be applied to clusters of workstations (although they do not provide real high performance)
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Programming for High Performance - An Introduction © Thomas Ludwig, 2000 (3/146) Contents Parallel Architectures Parallelization Concepts Shared Memory Programming Models Message Passing Programming Models Data Parallel Programming Models
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Programming for High Performance - An Introduction © Thomas Ludwig, 2000 (4/146) Parallel Architectures Flynn's Classification Classification of MIMD Systems Shared Memory and Distributed Memory Distributed Shared Memory Communication Networks Performance Evaluation The Parallel Linpack-Benchmark The TOP500 List
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Programming for High Performance - An Introduction © Thomas Ludwig, 2000 (5/146) Concepts Parallel Computer Has computing units that work in a coordinated manner and in parallel Units Special units like processor internal pipeline units Calculation units (integer, floating point) Processor nodes Computers Parallel computers and workstation clusters Parallel Architectures
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Programming for High Performance - An Introduction © Thomas Ludwig, 2000 (6/146) Flynn's Classification (1972) Computers work with instruction streams and data streams The combinations of both result in 4 variants SISD Single instruction stream, single data stream SIMD Single instruction stream, multiple data stream MISD Multiple instruction stream, single data stream MIMD Multiple instruction stream, multiple data stream Parallel Architectures
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Programming for High Performance - An Introduction © Thomas Ludwig, 2000 (7/146) What is what with Flynn? SISD Classical von-Neumann-architecture SIMD Vector computers, array computers MISD Data flow machines ??? MIMD All that interests us: multi processor systems MIMD has to be divided into finer classes Parallel Architectures
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Programming for High Performance - An Introduction © Thomas Ludwig, 2000 (8/146) Classification of Flynn's MIMD Systems Systems consist of multiple processors that are connected via an interconnection network Via the interconnection network information is passed between processes on different processors. Synchronisation and control information is also transferred over the network Criteria How do processors see the memory's address space?
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