Exam _1 study guide - Exam #1 Study guide Chapter 1 The...

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Exam #1 Study guide Chapter 1 – The Study of Body Function Physiology : study of biological function – of how the body works, from cell to tissue, tissue to organ, organ to system, and of how the organism as a whole accomplishes particular tasks essential for life Development of Pharmaceutical Drugs Phase I clinical trials : drug tested on healthy human volunteers to test its toxicity in humans and to study how the drug is “handled” by the body Phase II clinical trials : drug tested on target human population. In exceptional cases where drug seems to be effective, but has minimal toxicity, it moves to next phase Phase III clinical trials : occur in many research centers across the country to maximize the number of test participants. In addition, people are tested who have other health problems besides the one that the drug is intended to benefit FDA approval Phase IV clinical trials : test other potential uses of the drug Homeostasis : a state of relative constancy of the internal environment of the body Negative Feedback Loops Negative feedback : response mechanism that serves to maintain a state of internal constancy. Effectors are activated by changes in the internal environment, and the inhibitory actions of the effectors serve to counteract these changes & maintain a state of balance (thermostat example) Set point : average value within the normal range of measurements Negative feedback loop : When a sensor detects a deviation from a particular set point , it must relay this information to an integrating center . The integrating center responds by either increasing or decreasing the activity of particular effectors (generally, muscles or glands) Homeostasis is best conceived as a state of dynamic constancy , in which conditions are Positive feedback : the action of effectors amplifies those changes that stimulated the effectors (ex. – blood clotting – activation of one clotting factor usually results in activation of many in a positive feedback cascade. In this way, a single change is amplified to produce a blood clot) Homeostasis is maintained by generally two regulatory mechanisms… Intrinsic : “built in” to the organs being regulated Extrinsic The Primary Tissues The body is composed of 4 types of tissues. 1. Muscle Skeletal (striated) - voluntary Page 1 of 15
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Exam #1 Study guide Cardiac (striated) - involuntary Smooth - involuntary 2. Nervous Consists of neurons (functional unit of the nervous system) which have the following three parts… Cell body Dendrites Axon 3. Epithelial Cover and line body surfaces / form membranes / glands Fastest growing tissue / most likely to mutate Types Squamous / columnar / cuboidal Simple / stratified Exocrine glands : secretions of these cells are passed to the outside of the epithelial membranes (surface of the body) through ducts
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2009 for the course PHYS 104 taught by Professor Pratt during the Spring '09 term at University of Indianapolis.

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Exam _1 study guide - Exam #1 Study guide Chapter 1 The...

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