Exam _4 study guide - Exam #4 Study Guide Chapter 14...

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Exam #4 Study Guide Procedure for obtaining blood pressure… Blood pressure cuff is placed around the arm Pumping the cuff adds pressure which will occlude blood flow through the brachial artery Listen w/ stethoscope to brachial artery @ the distal end of the cuff At the beginning, you hear nothing o under normal circumstances, you should never hear anything hearing turbulence in the carotid arteries – this is a sign of sclerosis of the artery or an aneurism Bleed air out of the cuff @ 2mmHg/second When 1 st tapping sound (Korotkoff sound) is heard, this is the systolic blood pressure (pressure caused by ventricular contraction) When the last tapping sound is heard, this is the diastolic blood pressure (ventricular relaxation – pressure caused by the elastic recoil of the great arteries) Then, you will hear nothing o At this time, the elastic recoil of the great vessels is providing enough pressure to keep the brachial artery open even though the cuff is applying pressure to / squeezing it ** Blood Pressure can be obtained on any artery that a cuff can get around Baroreceptor Reflex Baroreceptors : stretch / pressure receptors that aid in maintaining blood pressure w/in limits; mechanoreceptors located in the aortic and carotid artery sinuses Sense the stretch / pressure of blood on the arteries Activated whenever blood pressure increases or decreases Sensory nerve information from the baroreceptors ascends via the vagus nerve to the medulla oblongata, which directs the autonomic nervous system to respond appropriately o If blood pressure is too low (in danger of blacking out), the baroreceptors send afferent information to the medulla oblongata which in turn sends efferent information to the heart to increase the heart rate and the strength of contraction (sympathetic response) o If blood pressure is too high (in danger of “blowing out” a vessel), the baroreceptors send afferent information to the medulla oblongata which in turn sends efferent information to the heart to decrease the heart rate (parasympathetic response) Chapter 16 – Respiratory Physiology Respiration includes three separate, but related functions… 1. ventilation 2. gas exchange 3. cellular respiration (oxygen utilization): occurs between the blood and tissues at the cellular level Conducting zone : all anatomical structures through which air passes to reach the respiratory zone (nares; nasopharynx (including the conchae); oropharynx; laryngopharynx; trachea; carina; splits into left & right primary bronchii which split 23 times (secondary, tertiary, quaternary, …); bronchioles Respiratory mucosa: from trachea “down” to the respiratory zone, the lining is ciliated pseudo- stratified columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells Page 1 of 18
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Exam _4 study guide - Exam #4 Study Guide Chapter 14...

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