Initial Report

Initial Report - Ahmad El-Arabi 903-540-336 Bioengineering...

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Ahmad El-Arabi 903-540-336 Bioengineering 10 Initial Report Device name: CryoValve SynerGraft Pulmonary Heart Valve made by CryoLife. I. Clinical Problem: Valvular heart disease: o The term valvular heart disease refers to “[a]ny dysfunction or abnormality of one or more of the heart’s four valves, including the mitral valve and aortic valve on the left side, and the tricuspid valve and pulmonic valve on the right side.” [5] The four heart valves: tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valves. [12] o Each of the four valves listed above has a set of flaps (or leaflets) and “[w]hen working properly, the heart valves open and close fully.” [10] o Not only can an individual can be born with an abnormal heart valve, but an individual’s valve can become damaged by “infections such as infective endocarditis, rheumatic fever, [or] changes in valve structure in the elderly.” [10] o What defines a defective heart valve? As previously stated, a defective heart valve is one that is unable to fully open or close. But within this broad definition, there are two 1
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types of defective heart valves, which in turn leads to two different types of valvular heart disease: Valvular stenosis. o A condition in which one of the valves in the heart is narrowed, or in some more extreme cases, completely blocked. A narrowing of the heart valve results in “interference with the smooth passage of blood through it.” [5] Valvular regurgitation. o A condition in “which blood leaks back in the wrong direction because one or more of the heart’s valves is closing improperly.” [5] Statistics: o According to the American Heart Association’s 2006 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update [8], Valvular heart disease is responsible for 20,000 deaths per year in the Unites States. A contributing factor in about 42,000 deaths. Among these cases, the breakdown is as follows: Death due to aortic valve disorder (63 percent). Death due to mitral valve disorder (14 percent). Death due to pulmonic valve disorder (.06 percent). Death due to tricuspid valve disorder (.01 percent). II. Current Treatment: Treatment of valvular heart disease is dependent on the severity and the type of the individual’s diagnosis. o Individuals with “minor valve problems may not require treatment.” [5] o If an individual’s heart valve disorders are more serious, they can be treated with medications such as: ACE inhibitors. 2
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Widens blood vessels. Antiarrhythmics. Slows the heart rhythms and maintains a steady heartbeat, therefore pumping more blood through the body. Antibiotics. Help prevent or treat infection. Anticoagulants. Help prevent the formation of blood clots.
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Initial Report - Ahmad El-Arabi 903-540-336 Bioengineering...

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