Kidneys Part I

Kidneys Part I - Chapter 15 Urinary System Outline Overview...

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Chapter 15: Urinary System Outline • Overview of Structure • Nephron: Glomerular Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion • Ureters, Urinary bladder, Urethra, Micturition • Fluid, Electrolyte, Acid-Base balance • Pathophysiology
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Functions of the Urinary System Elimination of waste products Nitrogenous wastes Toxins Drugs Regulate aspects of homeostasis Water balance Electrolytes Acid-base balance in the blood Blood pressure Red blood cell production Activation of vitamin D Secretion by kidneys: erythropoietin, Renin Gluconeogenesis (in kidneys to small extent)
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Structure of Urinary System Paired kidneys are on either side of vertebral column below diaphragm – About size of fist Urine flows from kidneys into ureters which empty into bladder Urinary bladder – provides a temporary storage reservoir for urine Urethra – transports urine from the bladder out of the body
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Layers of Tissue Supporting the Kidney Renal capsule fibrous capsule that prevents kidney infection Adipose capsule fatty mass that cushions the kidney and helps attach it to the body wall Renal fascia outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney Ptosis -kidneys fall to a lower position ureter kinks urine backsup pressure on kidney tissue- Hydronephrosis
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Internal Anatomy Frontal section shows two distinct regions Cortex the light colored, granular superficial region. Cortex contains many capillaries and parts of nephrons Medulla consists of renal pyramids separated by renal columns Pyramid contains minor calyces which unite to form a major calyx Pyramids are made up of parallel bundles of urine-collecting tubules Renal columns are inward extensions of cortical tissue that separate the pyramids The medullary pyramid and its surrounding capsule constitute a lobe Major calyces join to form renal pelvis which collects urine to ureters which empty into bladder
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Renal Blood Vessels 17-12 Curve over pyramid
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Renal Blood Vessels continued Interlobular arteries give rise to afferent arterioles which supply glomeruli Glomeruli are mass of capillaries inside glomerular capsule that gives rise to filtrate that enters nephron tubule Efferent arteriole drains glomerulus and delivers that blood to peritubular capillaries ( vasa recta ) Blood from peritubular capillaries enters veins NEPHRONS The structural-functional units Responsible for forming urine Main structures of nephron: Glomerulus Renal tubule 17-13
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Kidneys Part I - Chapter 15 Urinary System Outline Overview...

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