L25-Chemical_Dynamics

L25-Chemical_Dynamics - What is Chemical Kinetics Part IV...

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Part IV: Chemical Dynamics Chemical Kinetics 1 What is “Chemical Kinetics?” The study of the rates of chemical reactions how rapidly chemical reactions occur formation of products disappearance of reactants the factors that affect reaction rates the mechanisms of the reactions the specific steps that occur during a chemical reaction 2 2HCl(aq) + Mg(OH) 2 (s) ! MgCl 2 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) ! 97 kJ mol rxn C ( graphite ) + O 2 (g) ! CO 2 (g) -394 kJ mol rxn Kinetics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamically favorable reactions (- ! G) don’t necessarily happen very rapidly Reaction ! G Time Scale seconds centuries? The factors that affect the kinetics determine how fast a reaction or process will occur 3 Factors that Affect Kinetics The nature of the reactants solid, liquid, gas, solution, crystal, powder, etc. Concentration Temperature Presence of a catalyst 4
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2HCl(aq) + CaCO 3 (s) ! CaCl 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (l) 1. Nature of the Reactants Observation: Powdered chalk reacts more rapidly with HCl(aq) than a stick of chalk 5 2HCl(aq) + CaCO 3 (s) ! CaCl 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (l) 1. Nature of the Reactants Observation: Powdered chalk reacts more rapidly with HCl(aq) than a stick of chalk 6 rate = k A [ ] x B [ ] y 2. Concentrations of Reactants Rate Law: an expression that describes the dependence of a reaction rate on concentration k: the rate constant [A]: the concentration of reactant “A”
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L25-Chemical_Dynamics - What is Chemical Kinetics Part IV...

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