L26-Chemical_Dynamics

L26-Chemical_Dynamics - Factors that Affect Kinetics Part...

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Part IV: Chemical Dynamics Chemical Kinetics 1 Factors that Affect Kinetics The nature of the reactants solid, liquid, gas, solution, crystal, powder, etc. Concentration Temperature Presence of a catalyst 2 Reaction Mechanisms The specific steps undergone in the formation of products from reactants 2 A + B ! E + F A + B ! C C + A ! D D ! E + F Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: 2 A + B ! E + F ! Compounds C and D are reaction intermediates ! Each step has its own rate and rate constant ! Each step is referred to as an elementary reaction or elementary step 3 Reaction Mechanisms The specific steps undergone in the formation of products from reactants 2 A + B ! E + F A + B ! C C + A ! D D ! E + F Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: 2 A + B ! E + F rate 1 = k 1 [A][B] rate 2 = k 2 [A][C] rate 3 = k 3 [D] The overall reaction rate is limited by the slowest step in the mechanism: the rate-limiting step 4
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3. Temperature kinetic energy (K.E.) > activation energy (E a ) the rate of a reaction depends on how many reactant species have K.E. > E a rate = k [ A ] x [ B 2 ] y 5 Why is a rate Temperature Dependent? Increased temperature
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L26-Chemical_Dynamics - Factors that Affect Kinetics Part...

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