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Unformatted text preview: Part I Properties of Atoms: Electron ConFgurations and the Periodic Table Prediction of Electron ConFgurations assume the atom is in the ground state electron conFguration the lowest energy, unexcited state the total energy of the atom is as low as possible The Aufbau Principle Build up each atom by adding the necessary number of electrons into orbitals in the way that gives the lowest total energy for the atom. Guidelines the orbitals increase in energy with increasing value of the principal quantum number ( n ) in a given shell (a certain n value), the energy increases with increasing angular momentum quantum number ( l ) Guidelines for Prediction of Electron ConFgurations 1. Electrons are assigned to orbitals in order of increasing value of (n + l) 2. or subshells with the same value of (n + l), electrons are assigned Frst to the subshell with lower n. l subshell numerical value s p 1 d 2 f 3 1 2 3 4 n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 l value 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 7p 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f (n+l) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6 = 7 = 8 Example: Carbon (atomic number 6) 1s ___ 2s ___ 2p ___ ___ ___ 1 s 2 2...
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