L7-Properties_of_Atoms

L7-Properties_of_Atoms - Part I Properties of Atoms: The...

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Part I Properties of Atoms: The Periodic Table and Ionization Energies Terminology Z eff : Effective nuclear charge the charge experience by an electron in the outer shell less than the actual nuclear charge due to decreased attraction between the nucleus an the outer electrons the screening or shielding effect of inner electrons Orbital penetration when an electron enters an orbital where it has lower probability of being found Orbital Penetration: s electrons a 2 s or (3 s electron) has some probability of being found in a 1s orbital 1 2 3
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Orbital Penetration: p electrons a p electron has zero probability of being found in the 1s orbital Orbital Penetration and Z eff 3p Nuclear charge: Charge experienced by 1s e-: Charge experienced by 2s e-: The 1s electrons effectively shield most of the nuclear charge from the 2s electron Orbital penetration increases the Z eff on certain electrons 3+ 3+ >1+ What kind of electron spends more time nearer the nucleus, a higher energy or lower energy one? Which electron is of higher energy, a 2 s electron or a 2 p electron? Which kind of electron experiences a higher Z eff , a 2 s electron or a 2 p electron? Orbital Penetration 4 5 6
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within a group (1A, 2A, etc.) atomic radii increase from top to bottom as electrons are added to shells farther from the nucleus within a row, atomic radii decrease from left to right as protons are added to the nucleus Ions a charged atom
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2009 for the course CHEM 333 taught by Professor Baird during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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L7-Properties_of_Atoms - Part I Properties of Atoms: The...

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