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L10-Interactions_of_Atoms_Re-uploaded_ - Part II...

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Part II Interactions of Atoms: Bonding Bonding of Atoms Why do atoms bond at all? Bonding lowers the potential energy between positive and negative particles. oppositely charge ions nuclei and electrons Types of Bonds Ionic bond electrostatic interactions between ions often results from the transfer of electrons between atoms. + - Types of Bonds Covalent bond valence electrons: the outermost electrons the sharing of electrons between atoms 1 2 3 4
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Covalent Bonds vs. Ionic Bonds Two extremes of a bonding “spectrum” all compounds of different types of elements have both ionic and covalent bond character ionic compounds: primarily ionic bonds in character often formed between metals and non-metals covalent compounds: primarily covalent bonds in character Ionic Compounds vs. Covalent Compounds: Property Comparison Ionic Covalent State of substance solid solid, liquid, gas Melting temp. > 400°C < 300°C Solubility (polar solvent) usually not usually Solubility (non-polar solvent) not usually usually Conductivity (liquid state) high none Conductivity in water high usually poor Electronegativity of atoms quite different similar (A Very Generalized Comparison) Ionic Compounds: 1A and 7A [Ne] 3 s [Ne] 3 s ↑↓ 3 p ↑↓ ↑↓ sodium chlorine Na Cl loses one electron gains one electron [Ne] 3 s
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