Lecture_2_new - Lecture 2 Instruction Set Architecture 1...

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Lecture 2 Instruction Set Architecture 1
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hat is omputer Architecture What s Co pute ch tectu e ? Operating ystem Application O system emory Compiler System Instruction Set Architecture Firmware I/O system Memory igital Design Datapath & Control Digital Design Circuit Design Layout 2
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struction Set Architecture Instruction Set Architecture software instruction set hardware Instruction set provides an layer of abstraction to programmers 3
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Levels of Representation High Level Language rogram temp = v[k]; [k] = v[k+1]; lw 15, 0($2) Program Compiler v[k] = v[k+1]; v[k+1] = temp; $, ($ ) lw $16, 4($2) sw $16, 0($2) sw $15, 4($2) Assembly Language Program Assembler Machine Language Program 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 Machine Interpretation 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 PCSrc 0 1 M u x PC Instruction memor y A ddress Memt oReg B ranch ALU Src 4 0 R egisters Wr i t e Read d a ta 1 d a ta 2 R ead register 1 register 2 1 RegW ri t e IF /ID ID /E X EX/M EM MEM/ W B MemWr i t e Zero Add re s u lt Shi ft le ft 2 ALU 4 [20– 16] ALUO p RegDst 16 32 [15– 0] 0 r e g i s e r i t e data Sign extend M u x 1 i t e d a t a M u x control MemRead [15– 11] 6 Dat a y 0 1 M u x
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ISA Design Principle To find a language that makes it easy to build the hardware and the compiler while maximizing performance and minimizing cost. “It is easy to see by formal-logical methods that there exist certain [instruction set] that are in abstract adequate to control and cause the execution of any sequence of operations….The really decisive considerations from the present point of view, selecting an nstruction set] are more of a practical nature: in selecting an [instruction set] , are more of a practical nature: simplicity of the equipment demanded by the [instruction set] , and the clarity of its application to the actually important roblems together with the speed of its handling of those problems together with the speed of its handling of those problems.” Burks, Goldstine, and von Neumann, 1947 5
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Interface Design A good interface: Lasts through many implementations (portability, compatibility) Is used in many different ways (generality) rovides onvenient nctionality to higher levels Provides convenient functionality to higher levels Permits an efficient implementation at lower levels Interface imp 1 use se time imp 2 imp 3 use use 6
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Instruction Set Architecture: What Must be Specified? Instruction Fetch add c, a, b sub d, a, c add d, c, d . . Instruction Decode + a+b memory . Operand Fetch a b Execute ± Instruction Format or Encoding ± – decode machine language? ± Location of operands and results ± – where other than memory? Result Store gister c ± – how many explicit operands? ± – how are memory operands located? ± – data type and size ± Operations 7 register Next Instruction ± – what are supported?
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Lecture_2_new - Lecture 2 Instruction Set Architecture 1...

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