01.introchem.aos104f08.sld9 - AOS 104 Fundamentals of Air...

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AOS 104 Fundamentals of Air and Water Pollution Dr. Jeffrey Lew lew@atmos.ucla.edu AIM: jklew888 MS1961 310-825-3023 TuTh 2:00-3:20 PAB 1434A 1 Grades Homework 20% Exam I 25% Exam II 25% Final Exam 30% Total 100% 2 Homework There will be approximately 7 homework sets Homework is due at the beginning of class Late homework will receive partial credit as outlined in the syllabus You are encouraged to work together and discuss approaches to solving problems, but must turn in your own 3 Overview of Topics Calculating pollution concentration Effects of pollution on acidity (pH)—acid rain Types of water pollution ! Health effects from water pollution Types of air pollution ! Health effects of air pollution Urban air pollution—bad ozone Stratospheric air pollution—depletion of good ozone 4 Units of Measurement Both SI and British units used ! Be able to convert between these two standards ! Examples Quantity SI British Length m ft Volume m 3 ft 3 Power watt BTU/hr Density kg/m 3 lb/ft 3 5 Significant Figures We reserve the right to take off for abuse of significant figures at any time. 1. Propagate all figures through your calculation; do not round off until the very last step. This minimizes one source of calculation errors 2. When you get your final answer look back at your starting data. If you had at most 2 significant digits to begin with, that " s the number of significant figures that should be in your final answer. 3. In some cases you can justify reporting one more significant digit than was in the starting data, so generally we will not take off for that. 6 Introduction Measurement of Concentration ! Liquids ! Air ! Conversions Involving the Ideal Gas Law Material Balance Models ! Basics ! Residence Time ! Steady-state Models With Non- conservative Pollutants 7 Concentration The amount of a specified substance in a unit amount of another substance ! Usually, the amount of a substance dissolved in water or mixed with the atmosphere Can be expressed as. .. Mass/Mass g/kg, lb/ton, ppmm, ppbm Mass/Volume g/L, μg/m 3 Volume/Volume mL/L, ppmv, ppbv Volume/Mass L/kg Moles/Volume molarity, M, mol/L 8 Liquids Concentrations of substances dissolved in water are generally given as weight per volume. e.g., mg/liter or μg/liter Concentrations may also be expressed as a weight ratio, for example: 7 mass units of substance A per million mass units of substance B is 7 ppm. 9
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Example 1 23 μg of sodium bicarbonate are added to 3 liters of water. What is the concentration in μg/L and in ppb (parts per billion) and in moles/L? To find the concentration in ppb, we need the weight of the water. = 7.7 μg L 23 μg 3 L 10 If density of water is 1000 g/L, 1 " g/L = 1 ppb 1 mg/L = 1 ppm Standard assumption: density of water is 1g/mL or 1000 g/L (at 4°C). 7.7
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01.introchem.aos104f08.sld9 - AOS 104 Fundamentals of Air...

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