06.1.airpollt1.aos104f08.sld9 - Respiratory or...

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B Air Pollution Introduction 1 B Introduction to Air Pollution Background on Air Pollution Impacts History of Air Pollution Definitions and Terms 2 B AIR POLLUTION Background Facts Air pollution harm: ! Sickness and death due to increased asthma and other respiratory illnesses, ! Damage to crops and materials including buildings and cars ! Poor visibility An estimated 1500–9000 people die prematurely each year due to smog in the Los Angeles region 3 B ! Respiratory or cardiopulmonary problems • In the nation, it is 50,000 or more, and across the globe WHO estimates it at 600,000/yr ! Compare to deaths from motor vehicle accidents (43,501), suicide (30,575), breast cancer (42,086), and leukemia (20,234) in 1998/US. • People living in polluted cities in the US lose an average about a year from their lives ! Compare to an average of 4 years for all cancers. 4 B • Kids who grow up in the smoggier parts of LA have more chronic respiratory problems when they grow up, and more severe asthma. • 15–20% of high school students who grew up in heavily polluted areas have clinically low lung capacities. • Low lung function has been shown to be second only to smoking as a risk factor for all-cause mortality. • Higher rates of lung and related cancer are associated with high levels of air pollution. 5 B History Mid-1600s John Evelyn: “Hellish and dismall cloud of sea-coale.” 1948, Donora, PA: Four-day air pollution episode resulted in 20 deaths, 6000 people ill 1952 London: Weeklong episode resulted in at least 4000 excess deaths. ! A re-analysis of the data indicates it was more like 12,000 over several months. 6 B • “The fog was thicker on that Friday morning than many people could ever remember. Through the day it steadily grew even thicker and people were already experiencing discomfort, and noticing the choking smell in the air . . . On (Saturday and) Sunday the fog continued and so did the deaths. The emergency services were no longer able to respond in any effective way. It is doubtful that many people perceived the nature of the calamity that had befallen them.” —Peter Brimblecombe, The Big Smoke • 1956 London: Smog episode resulted in 1000 excess deaths 7 B ! Each of these episodes was the result of sulfur oxides (SO 2
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2009 for the course AO 104 taught by Professor Jeffery during the Spring '09 term at UCLA.

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06.1.airpollt1.aos104f08.sld9 - Respiratory or...

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