06.2.airpollt2.aos104f08.sld9

06.2.airpollt2.aos104f08.sld9 - N2 + O2 + heat !...

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Photochemical Smog 1 Photochemical Smog Background: Measurements Sources and Chemical Processes ! Mobile Sources ! Trends in Mobile Emissions ! Photochemical Nitrogen Cycle ! Hydrocarbons Smog Concentrations Around Los Angeles ! Influence of Weather and Terrain ! Trends 2 Source NO x VOCs CO PM 2 . 5 % of total VOCs + NO x Industrial/energy related fuel com- bustion 31 11 43 7.7 2.6 Landfil s and other waste related activ- ities 1.7 6 1 0.35 0.05 Cleaning and sur- face coatings 0.05 57 0.01 0.06 3.5 Oil production and marketing 0.36 36.7 5 0.7 2 Industry 0.17 20.5 5.4 4.8 1 Solvent evapo- ration (mostly consumer prod- ucts: cleaners, paints, etc.) 0 144 0 0.02 7 Misc.: residential fuel combustion, fires, dust, cooking 67 24 158 67.5 5.6 Light duty cars 115 136 1387 3.84 15 Light and medium duty trucks (T1, T2, T3) 116 95 1108 3 13 Heavy duty gas trucks 24.7 15.3 123 0.1 2 Diesel trucks 286 9.23 43.7 4.7 18 Motorcycles 1.4 6 52 0.04 0.4 Busses 27.4 5 80 0.5 2 Planes, trains, ships, other 285 111 824 17 24 South Coast Air Basin Primary emissions for 2005, (Tons/day): 3 Source NO x VOCs CO PM 2 . 5 % of total VOCs + NO x Total on-road mo- bile sources 570 267 2793 12.3 51 Total stationary and area sources 100 300 212 81 24 Total other mobile sources 284 111 824 17.09 24 Total anthro- pogenic 955 678 3829 110 100 4 Most air pollution is from combustion ! Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) in transportation is one significant source Source of Smog Pollutants Ideally: Consider the simplest hydrocarbon as a fuel: In this case, the only pollutant emitted is CO 2 , a greenhouse gas (more on that later). Fuel + O 2 ! CO 2 + H 2 O CH 4 + 2O 2 ! CO 2 + 2H 2 O 5 ! In reality, combustion is not perfect due to incomplete mixing or power requirements. ! Less O 2 may be consumed than required by stoichiometry. A more realistic representation: HC: methane, partially broken down methane, and some polymerized methane fragments. Also, air is not pure O 2 ! CH 4 + O 2 ! CO + CO 2 + 2H 2 O + HC 6 In addition, we use complex fuels such as gasoline, oil, and coal, all of which contain impurities—metals, S, ash, Pb, N, and so forth. As a result there are emissions of CO, NO
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06.2.airpollt2.aos104f08.sld9 - N2 + O2 + heat !...

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