BIO 205 - Functional Organization and Control of Internal...

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Functional Organization and Control of Internal Environment Basic Organization of Life Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems Organism Physiology - basically from atoms to cells Anatomy - from tissues to organism Fluids and Fluid Compartments Intracellular Fluid - the cytoplasm Extracellular Fluids - components of the internal environment Tissue fluid Blood Lymph CSF Ocular fluids Digestive juices etc. Cell function is influenced by the composition of extracellular fluids oxygen and carbon dioxide levels glucose
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ions amino acids fatty substances hormones waste products The internal environment must remain relatively constant with respect to the above materials in order for normal cellular functions to continue. (e.g. CSF composition and brain function. Slight fluctuations in glucose or oxygen will quickly interrupt neuronal function.) Homeostasis: the "steady state" maintained by the body Control Systems of the Body Normal ranges are given for composition and functions of the body rather than exact values due to the nature of the control mechanisms of the body. Negative Feedback - product of reaction inhibits further production of that specific product. Over shoot and under shoot are common features of this mechanism due to delay between: Receptor - notes changes in system Integrator - "decides what to do" Effector - produces change Positive Feedback - product stimulates the production of more product. Rare in biological systems due to potential for loss of control. Five primary functions controlled by positive feedback mechanisms.
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Blood Clotting Ovulation Labor Nerve Impulse Generation Shock Cycle Each of the above has a final outcome that stops the reaction Adaptive Controls Mechanisms - Feedforward Mechanisms Allows for constant modification of control -- e.g. brain and muscle coordination for movements The Cell and Its Functions Review membrane structure Review cell organelles Protein Synthesis and Cell Reproduction Review basic concepts Membrane Transport Membrane Structure
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Lipid bilayer - barrier to water and water soluble molecules Peripheral proteins - cell division, shape, and some enzyme activity Integral proteins - extend from intracellular to extracellular margins Channel proteins Transport proteins Glycoproteins - protein molecules with associated carbohydrate chains cell adhesion receptor sites immune reactions Mechanisms of Membrane Transport Passive mechanisms - no cellular energy required Diffusion - movement from high concentration to low concentration based on molecular collisions 1. simple diffusion - concentration gradient alone 2. facilitated diffusion - gradient + protein carriers Diffusion through protein channels 1. simple diffusion through water-filled channels in protein structure 2. selective permeability produced by: channel charge channel size 3. gating of protein channels controlled permeability channels open or close due to changes in protein configuration a. voltage gating - ionic charges produce change
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b. ligand gating - binding of particles other than
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2009 for the course BIOSC 205 taught by Professor Boreckey during the Fall '07 term at Carlow University.

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BIO 205 - Functional Organization and Control of Internal...

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