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Unformatted text preview: 20-1Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited Chapter 20Chapter 20Research MethodsResearch Methodsby Neil Guppyby Neil Guppy20-2Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONWill examine:Social research as scientific researchMinimizing bias in researchMethods and techniques of social researchFuture of social research*20-3Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited SOCIAL RESEARCHSOCIAL RESEARCHSocial research involves systematic study of the social world Uses theoretically informed questionsIntegrates sound theory with careful methods*20-4Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited SCIENCE AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE AS A SOCIAL PRACTICEPRACTICEScience combines both subjectivity and objectivity: Subjectivity: Perceptions-view of reality that are filtered by our personal values and expectationsCan lead to observer biasObjectivity: Attempt to minimizeeffect of personal bias on research results, or idea of impartiality-fairness20-5Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited MINIMIZING BIAS IN SOCIAL MINIMIZING BIAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCESCIENCEScientific practices minimize bias by:Subjecting research findings to rigorous scrutiny-analysis by scientific communityApplying skeptical reasoning to research findingsDoes not negate central need though for subjectivity in change and innovation*20-6Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited SCIENTIFIC THINKINGSCIENTIFIC THINKINGScientific thinking starts with uncertainty; i.e., a hypothesis(question, hunch, or well-conceived conjecture about how the world works) that must be testable Should include possibility of refuting scientific claimScience is not merely observation of facts but requires interpretation of the collection of facts In science, need to confront problem of 20-7Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited NATURAL SCIENCES VS. NATURAL SCIENCES VS. SOCIAL SCIENCESOCIAL SCIENCEBoth natural sciences and social science use the scientific method: Set of practices or procedures for testing knowledge claimsBut social science has different subject matter:Study meaningful action: Activities that arise from intentionality and are meaningful to people involved*20-8Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited METHODS OF SOCIAL METHODS OF SOCIAL RESEARCH: EXPLANATIONRESEARCH: EXPLANATIONExplanationis necessary to show howor whya cause has a certain effect Causationinvolves relationship between two variables where change in one variable produces change or variation in second variableMultiple causes are involved in almost every social-scientific explanationNeed to guard against assuming correlation equates to causation because correlation can be spurious-false: Incorrect inference about causal relations 20-9Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited...
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20 - 20-1Copyright 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson...

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