Exam Terms I

Exam Terms I - Exam Terms I 1. Mutations: the...

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Exam Terms I 1. Mutations: the information-bearing structures that must be capable of undergoing changes. 2. Genes: the basic unit of inheritance. 3. Genome: collection of all the genes in an organism. 4. Genetics: concerns with the diversity, replication, mutation, and translation of information in the genes. 5. Proteins: the structure of organisms and their active physiological processes. 6. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): the genetic information for the synthesis of these proteins by the cells. 7. Nucleotide bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). 8. Complementary: A = T, G = C 9. Messenger RNA (mRNA): molecule used in transcription for turning the information in DNA into a sequence of amino acids. 10. Ribonucleic acid (RNA): found in the mRNA which has a sequence of nucleotides similar to DNA except it contains uracil (U) instead of thymine (T). 11. Transcript: the original strand of DNA molecule. 12. Transcription: turning DNA into amino acids. 13. Translation: the production of a chain of amino acids based on a sequence of nucleotides in mRNA. 14. Transfer RNA (tRNA): the molecule that corresponds between codons and amino acids. 15. Phenotype: an observation in morphology or physiology.
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16. Forward genetics: start with a phenotype (mutation) and then identify the gene responsible. 17. Reverse genetics: the gene is known and uses the genetic code to find the protein affect. 18. Wild type: the normal form of a phenotype 19. Mutants: the rare exceptional variants 20. Restriction enzyme: cuts DNA at specific target sequences of four or more bases. 21. Probing: detecting specific macromolecules in a mixture. For example, binding of mRNA to DNA from which was transcribed. 22. Southern blot: use restriction enzyme to cut the DNA and then use electrophoresis. 23. Northern blot: mRNA is added to the gel and run it through electrophoresis. 24. Western blot: protein is added to the gel. 25. Model organisms: common genetic mechanisms to all species or a large group of species. 26. Diploid: contains two complete sets of genes (2n). 27. Haploid: only a single set of genes in each cell (1/2n). 28. Genotype: the genetic information that is inherited from its parents. 29. Developmental noise: random events in development led to variation in
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Exam Terms I - Exam Terms I 1. Mutations: the...

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