Lecture 14 Guide

Lecture 14 Guide -...

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Transposable
Elements
 I.
Overview
 
 
 

 II.
Discovery
 
 A.
Barbara
McClintock
and
the
Ac
Ds
system
 III.
Prokaryotic
transposable
elements
 
 A.
IS,
Tn
and
R
plasmids
 IV.
Eukaryotic
transposable
elements
 
 A.
Retrotransposons
 
 B.
DNA
transposons
 V.
Drosophila
P
elements
 
 A.
P
element
structure
 
 B.
Gal4
UAS
binary
system
 VI.
Human
transposable
elements
 
 

 
 
 
Genomics

 Objectives:
 
 Understand
the
importance
of
transposable
elements
(TEs)
as
modifiers
of
genes
 
and
genomes,
and
that
genomes,
including
the
human
genome,
are
composed
of
a

 large
quantity
of
TEs
 
 Know
the
following:
 The
prokaryotic
TEs
that
make
an
R
plasmid
 The
differences
between
retrotransposons
and
DNA
transposons
 The
Ac
Ds
system
of
corn
 The
structure
of
P
elements
 
 Be
able
to
completely
describe
the
Gal4
UAS
binary
system
of
Drosophila,
and
to

 present
examples
of
how
it
can
be
used
 Vocabulary:
 Activator
(Ac)
 Dissociator
(Ds)
 autonomous
element
 non‐autonomous
element
 unstable
phenotype
 retrotransposon
(class
1
element)
 DNA
transposon
(class
2
element)
 conservative
vs.
replicative
transposition
 inverted
repeat
 transposase
 insertion
sequence
(IS
element)
 transposon
(Tn
element)
 R
plasmid
 P
elements
 insertional
mutagenesis
 Gal4
UAS
binary
system
 enhancer
trap
 long
and
short
interspersed
elements
(LINEs
and
SINEs)

 Phenotypes produced by transposable elements in corn kernels Figure
14‐4
 Prokaryotes:
Insertion
sequences
(IS
elements)
of
bacteria
are

 the
simplest
transposable
elements
 Structural features of composite and simple transposons Two modes of transposition Eukaryotes: Retrotransposons have features in common with retroviruses Figure 14-12 A retrotransposon is transposed through an RNA intermediate Figure 14-13 Demonstration of transposition through an RNA intermediate Figure 14-14 DNA
transposons
 Explanation
of
Ac
and
Ds
 TEs
can
generate
mutations
in
adjacent
genes
 spontaneous
mutations
in
white
gene
of
Drosophila
 Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila Figure
14‐15
 Insertion of P elements causes the mutations underlying hybrid dysgenesis Figure
14‐17
 Creation of Drosophila melanogaster transgenes Figure
20‐29
 From FlyBase: http:// flybase.bio.indiana.edu/.bin/tpmolmap.html? FBtp0000352 Types of transposable elements in the human genome Assignment

 Achieve
Objectives
List
(slide
2)
through
study
 and
practice.
 Solve
problems
from
textbook.

 Chapter
14:
 1,
3,
5,
8adef
 ...
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