lecture midterm 1

lecture midterm 1 - Each cell contains chromosomes, and...

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Each cell contains chromosomes, and chromosomes contain genes. Organism-human body contains trillions of cells->each nucleus contains an identical complementation of chromosomes in two copies. Each copy is a genome-> One specific pair chromosome pair-> each chromosome is one long DNA molecule, and genes are functional regions of this DNA->DNA is a double helix. The order of the amino acid that determines the protein. Order of DNA bases determines the protein order. Mitosis: two gametes and alignment at the equator. Meiosis: four gametes are produced and pairing of homologs at the equator (tetrad). Genotype: DNA sequence Phenotype: what the protein does. Forward genetics: start with a phenotype (mutation) and then identify the gene responsible. Reverse genetics: know gene and use the genetic code to find the protein affect. Blast analysis: pull up sequence and compare them. Model organisms: when studying one organism, and apply to all similar organisms. Human disease gene: single genes that when mutate cause an identifiable disease. Forward genetics: Phenotype A & B -> make crosses between strains -> note offspring ratios -> identify the molecular and developmental difference of individual genotypes -> identify DNA sequence differences.
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Probes can be used to detect specific macromolecules. Most phenotypes are influenced by genes, environment, and development. Example of monogenic trait: Cystic fibrosis- Disease due to mutation in a single gene. Mutant = abnormal version of gene (vs. wild type). Mutation is recessive: +/ + and +/- are normal, -/- is mutant. +/+ and -/- = homozygous. +/- heterozygous. Day 2 Discovery of transformation by Griffiths: Transforming R cells into S cells. S smooth surface, R rough surface
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lecture midterm 1 - Each cell contains chromosomes, and...

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