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Unformatted text preview: Welcome to Pharmacolgy Biology 200 Petitioners will be added at the end of lecture Dr. Kate Egan
Office: HS 115 Phone: 714.892.7711 ext. 51125 Hours: Tuesday 2:15-3:15 / 5:30-6:30 PM Wednesday 6:00 - 7:00 PM or by appointment Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Course Website: www.onlinegwc.com Required Notes: Required (Starting Now) How this course will work:
• Weekly on Blackboard (mygwc.com):
1. Watch lecture video for unit or view powerpoint presentation for unit. 2. Complete each assessment for each unit (due dates posted on blackboard) 3. Post any questions on discussion board or topics you would like to review during the next weeks lecture How this course will work:
• Every Wednesday Night:
– Attend lecture – Bring clicker • Exams will be administered during lecture
– Be on time – Bring appropriate scantron (see syllabus) – Bring student ID # – Failure to do any one of these items will result in a loss of points Introduction to Pharmacology
• Goal of the course is to set the groundwork for how the drugs work. • We will talk about drugs and disease states. • We will cover: how drugs work, tissues, receptors, anticipated responses, effects and side effects. Pharmacology
The study of drugs and their interaction with living organisms What are drugs?
• Chemical compounds
– Different sources – All drugs produce an effect in the organism • Specific compounds
– Act at specific sites – The more specificity the better What do drugs do?
• One of two things
– They augment OR block normal function • They do not cause anything “new” to happen….they can’t make a cell do something it has never done before. Branches of Study
Pharmaceutics Pharmacotherapeutics Pharmacodynamics Pharmacokinetics Toxicology Pharmaceutics
• Involved with formulating drugs
– They need to be stable in storage with reliable delivery to site of action – Important to researchers & drug developers Pharmacotherapeutics
• Concerned with drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of disease
– “Clinical pharmacology” – Important to those interacting and treating patients Pharmacodynamics
Mechanism of action and observable effects, both biochemical and physiological.
(i.e. how and why the drugs act on the body.) --- interactions between foreign chemicals and living tissues at the molecular and physiological level. --- What drugs do at the target tissues Receptor theory…most drugs bind at target molecules called receptors. These receptors are found on target tissues/organs Pharmacokinetics
Movement of drugs into, around and out of the body.
...what the body does to the drug.
• Absorption where and how • Distribution where? (fluids? fats? brain?) how? (may be tied to plasma proteins) • Metabolism or Biotransformation activated or inactivated? where? liver, kidney • Excretion how and where eliminated from the body This happens in a dynamic way Toxicology Study of harmful effects
• Best one can say: beneficial effects outweigh harmful effects
– for most patients – most of the time. Some terms that relate to drug behavior Affinity Specificy Efficacy Affinity
• How tightly a drug binds to it’s receptor
– High affinity – Low affinity • The proportion of bound drug molecules is related to drug concentration.
– Low concentration of drug molecules = not many receptors bound – When you add more drug, more receptors bind drug molecules = greater action – Therefore, the percentage of bound drug increases with an increase in drug concentration More on affinity
• A drug that binds receptors at a lower concentration is said to have a “higher affinity” for the receptor
– Kd = a measure of affinity and is equal to the drug concentration that gives 50% binding • Why is this important”?
Different drugs can compete for receptors and the affinity of the drug for the receptor is going to influence the likelihood of binding. The competition can change the apparent affinity of a drug at a given concentration Specificity
The binding of drug to a given receptor. A “dirty drug” binds to more than one receptor and therefore can produce more than one response. In general, drugs with high specificity are preferred Efficacy
Effectiveness…how good is the drug at producing a desired effect The measure of a response of a drug at a receptor. Also called the intrinsic activity. The intrinsic activity is the ability of a drug to interact with a receptor and get the receptor to do something. Agonist
An agonist is a drug that has high intrinsic activity It turns “on” a receptor and we see a response. Antagonist
An antagonist is a drug with no intrinsic activity. They are useful because they BLOCK receptors. They sit on receptors and block another drug/chemical from binding. Partial Agonist
Has intermediate effects They can turn on a receptor but they don’t do it very well. Partial agonists can be both positive and negative A partial agonist will give some effects by itself but will prevent the action of a full agonist. ...
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- Summer '09