USH1 07132009 - 7/13/2009 finish new spain, southern...

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7/13/2009 finish new spain, southern colonies III. Building an empire A. encomienda system conquistadors by definition looking for treasure in the new world, refer to previous note set. Conquistador license setup from last time, gets leftover stuff, permission to take over native villages also. Encomienda = getting his own indian village, official ownership. He is called the encomendero, head of the village. Indians have to pay tribute to encomendero, provide portion of whatever they make, corn, beans, jewerly, etc, give percentage, and work for him. In turn, encomendero, keeps law and order, protects his indians against other indians, convert to christianity arranging for a priest and a church. Possibilties of work, mines, buildings, farming, etc. Indians a lot of times end up overworkd, mistreated, underfed, sick, eventually some of the priests start to complain about the poor treatment, in response the spanish govt makes regulations on how you can treat them. Month long complaints bc of communications. Encomendero doesn't always listen. Over time, indian population in new spain gets smaller and smaller, die off from disease and overwork, encomienda system stops working bc not enough indians, as villages die off or get combined, spanish takeover the land that's left behind. So before if ther was village, encomendero owned he land but the indians still lived on it, now as they're dying off, more land just completely taken over, haciendas (big estates) put in place. Might still use indians as cheap labor but its a little bit different. B colonists – Spanish government encouraging immigration to New Spain, 1574, spanish chartered 121 town in the new world, most in present day mexico. Start of start off with explorers, then conquistadors settling, and then govt sends ppl to move. Another 210 by 1628. Most caribbean, mexico, peru. All of that is New Spain right now, all that territory, divide into two districts called viceroyalties, led by king appointed viceroys, then council below viceroy that gets to write legislation, appointed not elected by spanish govt. From 1492 to 1592, 225000 spanish ppl come to settle in new spain. Most are middle class, most are young, most are men. Before 1519, men outnumber women 20 to 1, as time goes on, ratio decreases 3 to 1. Need partner a lot of the time, turn to indians, new ppl called Mestizos, children of spanish and indian descent. Very divided racial hiearchy, ppl born in spain, then mestizos in the middle, usually can't move up past middle class, and bottom tier pure indians and africans. Slaves from africa as indians die for cheap labor, gold and silver mines, new spain and spanish govt become pretty wealthy. IV florida and new mexico A. florida – do move into FL and NM, 1550s, french pirates who are attacking spanish shipts that are going from new spain to spain with gold and silver. Usuaully attacked somewhere between florida and the bahamas, spanish say we should build settlements in florida to protect our ships. Spanish move into
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USH1 07132009 - 7/13/2009 finish new spain, southern...

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