ESL151-RefutationParagraphinanArgumentativeEssayLectureNotes

ESL151-RefutationParagraphinanArgumentativeEssayLectureNotes...

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Unformatted text preview: Refutation Paragraph in an Argumentative Essay Lecture Notes Refuting and Conceding the Opposition In an argumentative essay, you should refute opposing arguments. It is this characteristic that is more particular to the argumentative essay than to expository essays. Since there are two sides to the issue, and since you— the writer—want to convince the reader that you are right, not only must you prove your own case, but you should also prove that the opponent is wrong, or at least that your points are more valid or significant. Refute means to prove wrong by argument or to show that something is erroneous. In refutation, you will deal with the opponent's reasons and show that yours are more valid or superior. However, if the opponent makes some valid points, you will want to concede them, or agree that they are valid, and then go on to argue your own points. The following paragraphs show how to refute and concede arguments. The first paragraph sets up an argument; the second paragraph both concedes valid points and refutes the main argument. Drivers over the age of 75 should no longer be permitted to drive because of their physical impairments. By that age, most people's vision and hearing have deteriorated; thus, they cannot see cars, pedestrians, and traffic signs as well as they could in their youth. In addition, they have slower reaction times. This is particularly problematic because while driving, one must be constantly on the alert to the need to stop or swerve suddenly to avoid a collision. These physical and mental impairments lead to a lot of accidents. In fact, if we compare on a per-mile basis the elderly with other age groups of drivers, it turns out that the elderly are involved in 25 accidents per 100 drivers. This is second only to the group aged 24 and under. Now observe how this point is refuted and the valid points conceded: My opponent argues that drivers over the age of 75 should be allowed to drive even if they sometimes cause car accidents. He believes that even though it is true that statistics demonstrate that the accident rate per mile driven is high for the elderly, it is also true that younger drivers, namely those ranging from ages 16-24, have more accidents than senior drivers. Therefore, age should not be considered when determining...
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2009 for the course ESL 151 taught by Professor Carr,k during the Spring '09 term at Glendale Community College.

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ESL151-RefutationParagraphinanArgumentativeEssayLectureNotes...

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