Education CHAPTER SEVEN
Education What is the purpose of education? Opportunity for social mobility Nurture and develop the hearts and minds of children (most people do not have original thoughts – repeat from someone else) Antidote for prejudice and ignorance Solution to myriad of social problems Patterns and Trends Critics point to failure of education to teach basic skills in reading, writing, science, and math Less effective in transmitting skills and knowledge
Patterns and Trends Problem of illiteracy Literacy is measured as a scale that reflects an individual’s ability to understand, evaluate, and engage with written texts to participate in society Currently 17% of Americans possess only the most basic levels of literacy Scores on numeracy tests are even lower Estimates are <43% of high school graduates are “college or career ready”
Cross Cultural Variation in Education What is education? What ought education be? The United States has more than 140,000 schools, 4.6 million primary and secondary school teachers and college faculty, 5.4 million administrators and support staff, and 75.9 million students. There are 776 million illiterate adults around the world, and 100 million children have little or no access to schools. (may be one of greatest social problems) Effects of segregation on educational attainment today. Long Term-Short Term
Cross Cultural Variation in Education Education at a Glance, a publication of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), reports education statistics on over 35 countries. First, in general, educational levels are rising*. Second, there is a clear link between education and income, and between education and employment. Third, across all OECD-participating countries, an average of $9,195 is spent per student each year they are in school from elementary school to college. Fourth, in reference to teachers, the average student-teacher ratio in elementary schools in OECD-participating countries is 22:1. Fifth, educational attainment is increasing worldwide.
Achievement Gaps Federal Education Policies intended to reduce gaps: Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 The primary piece of federal legislation concerned K-12 education in the U.S. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) Established a range of reforms mandating uniform standards for all students with the aim of reducing and eventually eliminating the social class and race achievement gap by 2014 President Barack Obama’s Race to the Top (RTT) Goal of aiding states with various components of NCLB by offering grants to states to improve student outcomes and close achievement gaps Funding $12,880 per student in WV; $20,012 per student in Northern Virginia; $25,199 per student in NYC.
The New Educational Standard Standardized tests reveal score gaps based on race, class, ethnicity, gender, and other social characteristics Bachelor’s degree is becoming the education standard in the U.S.
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- Fall '19