Chapter 2.docx - Contrastive Analysis of Selected Features of English And Persian Important terms and concepts used in this chapter Coda the peak may

Chapter 2.docx - Contrastive Analysis of Selected Features...

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Contrastive Analysis of Selected Features of English And Persian Important terms and concepts used in this chapter: Coda : the peak may also be followed by one or more consonants which form the coda Cognates: Convergence: For one lexical item in the TL there are two or more equivalents in the source language. This is called convergence Divergence: For one lexical item in the source language there are two or more lexical items in the target language. This is the reverse of category 2 above and is called divergence or lexical split Nucleus: The vowel being the obligatory element in a syllable is called the nucleus or peak Onset: The peak may be preceded by one or more consonants, which constitute the onset of the syllable Peak: the other name for nucleus Syllable: A unit of pronunciation typically larger than a single sound and smaller than a word. Introduction Based one the theoretical discussion presented in chapter one, in this chapter an actual CA of certain features of English and Persian will be presented as a model. In this task, first the selected features from these two languages will be described in linguistic terms and then they will be compared and contrasted. Next, based on the differences found between the two languages certain predictions will be made about difficulties Persian speakers may encounter in learning English as a foreign language. The selection is based on the author’s years of experience in teaching English to Iranian students and familiarity with their learning difficulties and errors. A Sample of Phonological Contrastive Analysis Syllable Types and Consonant Clusters in English and Persian The notion of syllable is significant because: it is crucially important in the production of speech because stress and intonation are features of syllable, and not single sounds. Therefore, before comparing the structure of syllables in English and Persian it seems necessary to provide definition of the term syllable .
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Syllable A syllable is a unit of pronunciation typically larger than a single sound and smaller than a word. For example, in the English word dis. ad. van. tage there are four syllables, and the Persian word e. ʃ n¡. dæn, to hear, consists of three syllables. Therefore, a syllable is usually made up of more than one speech sound, i.e. a vowel plus one or more consonants. The vowel is an essential element in the structure of a syllable. In other word, a syllable is not possible without the vowel. The vowel being the obligatory element in a syllable is called the nucleus or peak. The peak may be preceded by one or more consonants, which constitute the onset of the syllable. It may also be followed by one or more consonants which form the coda . For instance, in the English word ‘cat’ the onset is /k/, the peak is /æ/, and the coda is /t/. English and Persian Syllable Types Compared to English, Persian has a rather limited range of syllable types. Disregarding some borrowed words like lustr ‘chandelier’ and septambr ‘September’ Persian has only six syllable types as presented in the table below. C stands for
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