H.evuluLwllclry Program and Strategy develop, more than half the land owned in common by the p C'1 ants. Now the question is: Can the Russian obshchina,· thouv h greatly und ermin ed, yet a form of the primeval common ownership of land, pass directly to the higher form of commu nist comIII1111 ownership? Or, on the contrary, must it first pass through the sam process of dissolution as constitutes the historical evolution of III \ Vest? The only answer to that possible today is this: If the Russian Revolution becomes the signal for a proletarian revolution in Ih \Vest, so that both complement each other. the present Russian common ownership of land may serve as the starting-point for II comm unist development. London, January 21, 1882 Karl [."farx Friedriclt Engel Preface to the German Ed ition of 1883 The preface to the present edition I must, alas, sign alone. Marx, the man to whom the whole working class of Europe and America owes more than to anyone else, rests at High gate Cemetery and over his grave the first grass is already growing. Since his death, there can be even less thought of revising or supplementing the Manifesto. All the more do I consider it necessary again to state here the following expressly: The basic thought running through the Mauifcstc-e-that eco-nomic production and the structure of society of every historical epoch necessarily arising therefrom constitute the foundation for the political and intellectual history of that epoch; that conse-quently (ever since the dissolution of the primeval comm unal owner-ship of land ) all history has been a history of class struggles, of struggles between exploited and exploiting. between dominated and dominating classes at various stages of social development; tha t this struggle, however, has now reached a stagc where the exploited and oppressed class (the proletariat ) can no longer emancipate itself from the class which exploits and oppresses it (the bourgeoisie), with out at the same time forever freeing the whole of society from exploitation, opp ression and class struggles-this basic thought belongs solely and exclusively to Marx, I have already stated this many times; but precisely now it is necessary that it also stand in front of the Ma nifesto itself. Friedrich Engels Lond on, June 28, 1883 4. Village community. Manifesto of the Communist Party .