Essentials-of-Cultural-Anthropology.pdf - THE HOBO-DYER MAP Can a map challenge your assumptions about the world The Hobo\u2013Dyer map reorients the world

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Unformatted text preview: THE HOBO-DYER MAP Can a map challenge your assumptions about the world? The Hobo–Dyer map reorients the world, placing south at the top and, like the Peters map that follows, uses an equal-area presentation, presenting accurate proportions of countries, continents, and oceans in relation to one another, rather than emphasizing shape or compass bearings. What do you see differently from this new perspective? Falkland Arge Uruguay Chile ntin a Islands (U.K.) S O UTH PA C IF IC OCEAN uay rag Pa Bo ru St. Vincent and the Grenadines E Vanuatu Samoa Solomon Islands W N Equator Kiribati Colombia Panama Costa Rica Nicaragua El Salvador Honduras Caribbean Guatemala Sea Venezuela Barbados St. Lucia (Fr.) Martinique Dominica Gulf of Mexico NO R T H A T L A N T IC OCEAN Labrador Sea Hawaii (U.S.) ico Dom. (U.S.) Puerto Rico Rep. Cu ba as am Ba h ex Antigua and Barbuda St. Kitts & Nevis M Jamaica Belize Haiti (Fr.) Guadeloupe Greenland Fiji Pe Guyana Trinidad and Tobago Grenada (Fr.) S Ecuador French Guiana Suriname New Caledonia livia Brazil New Zealand NO RTH PA C IF IC O C EA N United States Hudson Bay Canada Alaska (U.S.) Beaufort Sea Bering Sea A RCTI C OCEA N A n t a r c t i c a Lesotho Saudi Arabia Kuwait Jordan Iraq Syria Cong o Egypt ce Ukraine Fin la Kara Sea Barents Sea Ghana Mali Sw e Côte d'Ivoire Liberia Sierra Leone Guineain ea Bissau Gambia Senegal Mauritania Cape Verde Western Sahara Morocco Spain . Italy Cro Slo. France Hun.. Aust. Switz. Lux. SvkCz. Rep. Belarus Poland Lith. Latvia Estonia nd Sea Kos. Mont. B.H. Portugal Belgium Ireland Neth. U.K. Den. North Sea Iceland Ger. n Russia Moldova rb. Se Lake Baikal K az ak hstan Burkina Faso Algeria Israel LebanonM Cyprus e d i t e r r aTunisia Gr Mac. nea ee Alb. n Azerbaijan Tajikistan Turkm Turkey e n is t a n Uz Armenia b e Kyrgyzstan kis Caspian tan Black Sea Bulg. Sea Georgia Aral Sea Rom. Mongolia Benin Togo Libya y Iran Niger wa Om a U.A.E. Qatar Bahrain Persian Gulf an st Af Paki sta gh an n i pa l Ye Equatorial Guinea Nigeria Chad Sudan Sea China Bhutan n r it r e a me Sao Tome and Principe Red Bangladesh South Korea Sea of North Japan Korea Laptev Sea n India Ne East China Sea Sea of Okhotsk Arabian Sea E Japan tnam Vie Taiwan Central Djibouti Bay of Bengal Thailand Laos Myanmar Democratic Republic of the Gabon Congo South African Ethiopia Sudan Republic Cambodia South China Sea Somalia Kenya Uganda Angola Gu Philippines Maldives Sri Lanka Brunei Palau Micronesia Singapore ia mb Za Tanzania Burundi Rwanda Equator Namibia de Malaysia Comoros Seychelles I n d o n e s i a Malawi I N DI A N OCEAN East Timor Botswana Zimbabwe Mozam Mauritius Cam ero on Madaga (Fr.) Réunion biqu e scar Swaziland Au s t r a l ia Papua New Guinea S O UT H A TL A NTIC OCEAN South Africa or N Beaufort Sea Ger. B ah am a Spain Tunisia Portugal Morocco li ezuela Ven mbia Colo Niger ia o Cape Verde Algeria Ghana Benin xic Western Sahara a Senegal M Gambia Barbados Burkina GuineaGrenada Faso Guinea Trinidad and Tobago Bissau Suriname Sierra Leone French Guiana Liberia Togo Côte d'Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Sao Tome and Principe the Grenadines Guyana Me Dom. Puerto Rico (U.S.) Rep. St. Kitts & Nevis Gulf of Antigua and Barbuda Mexico Guadeloupe (Fr.) s Cu Dominica ba Martinique (Fr.) St. Lucia Jamaica Haiti St. Vincent and Belize Caribbean Sea Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Equator North U.K. Sea Neth. Ireland Belgium Lux. Switz. France N O R TH ATLAN TIC OCEA N United States Hawaii (U.S.) Den. Iceland Ecuador Gabon Per Brazil u Bo livia na Arg enti Chile uay rag Pa SO UT H P A CIFIC OC EA N Nige r Canada Labrador Sea Hudson Bay Mauritan ia Alaska (U.S.) N O RTH P A C IF IC O C E AN A R CTI C Greenland Uruguay Falkland Islands (U.K.) SO UTH ATLAN TIC OCEAN O C EA N Laptev Sea Kara Sea Barents Sea an d y r wa No en d Fi Libya Ir an Lebanon Israel ma South China Bay of Sea Bengal Cambodia na m Ca m ero o n Som alia Seychelles Comoros Palau Singapore Malaysia I n d o n e s i a INDIAN OCE A N Kiribati Equator East Timor Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Samoa e Madaga scar biq u Moz am Zimb. Botsw ana Maldives Ken ya Ugan da am b ia go Con Angola Namibia Micronesia Brunei Mauritius Réunion (Fr.) Vanuatu N W Swaziland South Africa Laos Sri Lanka Rwanda Burundi ia an Malawi nz Ta Z Taiwan Philippines Central South Ethiopia African Sudan Dem. Rep. of the Congo N OR TH PACIFIC OCEAN Thailand Djibouti Republic East China Sea Viet Sudan Eritrea em Y Japan South Korea China Bangladesh Myanmar Arabian Sea en North Sea of Korea Japan Bhutan pa l O Sea Chad Ne India n Red Egypt Kuwait Bahrain P Saudi Qatar Arabia U.A.E. Jordan ak e c eMac. Syria edit erranCyprus ean Sea Iraq Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan an Armenia Turkey ha nis tan Kos. G re B.H. Mont. M Alb. Sea of Okhotsk Mongolia is t . rb al y Aral Sea Caspian Uzbe kis Sea tan Turkm . Azerbaijan Bulg. Black Sea Lake Baikal K az ak h s t a n fg Se It Cro Poland Belarus Cz. Rep. . Ukraine t. v k Aus . S u n. Moldova H Rom. S lo . Georgia A Sw e nl Russia Estonia Latvia Lith. Lesotho E S Au s t r a l ia Fiji New Caledonia (Fr.) THE PETERS WORLD MAP How do maps shape the way you think about the world and its people? The Earth is round. So every flat, rectangular map involves distortions. But which distortions? The Peters world map is an equal-area map, showing countries and continents in accurate proportion with one another and reducing the visual dominance of the Northern Hemisphere by shifting the equator to the middle of the map, both in sharp contrast to the more familiar Mercator projection. A n t a r c t i c a New Zealand WO R L D • P O L I T I C A L NATIONAL BOUNDARIES While humanity’s impact is quite evident, and even striking, on many remotely sensed scenes, sometimes, as in the case with most political boundaries, it is invisible. State, provincial, and national boundaries can follow natural features, such as mountain ridges, rivers, or coastlines. Artificial constructs that possess no physical reality—for example, lines of latitude and longitude—can also determine political borders. This world political map represents the results of humanity’s efforts to slice and divide Earth into discrete spheres of influence. The National Geographic Society recognizes 192 independent states in the world as represented here. Of those nations, 185 are members of the United Nations. Winkel Tripel Projection Essentials of Cultural Anthropology Second Edition Essentials of Cultural Anthropology A Toolkit for a Global Age Second Edition Kenneth J. Guest Baruch College The City University of New York W. W. Norton & Company New York • London W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By midcentury, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2018 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States Second Edition Editor: Peter Lesser Marketing Managers: Julia Hall and Erin Associate Editor: Samantha Held Design Director: Hope Miller Goodell Project Editor: Caitlin Moran Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Production Manager: Ashley Horna Media Editor: Eileen Connell Media Associate Editor: Mary Williams Media Assistant Editor: Grace Tuttle Brown Book Design: Kiss Me I’m Polish LLC Photo Editor: Aga Millhouse Permissions Manager: Megan Schindel Permissions Associate: Elizabeth Trammell Composition: Jouve Manufacturing: LSC Crawfordsville Permission to use copyrighted material is included on p A:23. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Guest, Kenneth J., author. Title: Essentials of cultural anthropology : a toolkit for a global age / Kenneth J. Guest, Baruch College, The City University of New York. Description: Second Edition. | New York : W.W. Norton & Company, [2018] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017038033 | ISBN 9780393624618 (paperback) Subjects: LCSH: Ethnology. | Applied anthropology. | Globalization. Classification: LCC GN316 .G845 2018 | DDC 301—dc23 LC record available at W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010-0017 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 About the Author Kenneth J. Guest is Professor of Anthropology at Baruch College, CUNY, and author of God in Chinatown: Religion and Survival in New York’s Evolving Immigrant Community (2003). His research focuses on immigration, religion, globalization, ethnicity, and entrepreneurialism. Professor Guest’s ethnographic research in China and the United States traces the immigration journey of recent Chinese immigrants from Fuzhou, southeast China, who, drawn by restaurant, garment shop, and construction jobs and facilitated by a vast human smuggling network, have revitalized New York’s Chinatown. His writing explores the role of Fuzhounese religious communities in China and the United States; the religious revival sweeping coastal China; the Fuzhounese role in the rapidly expanding U.S. network of all-you-can-eat buffets and take-out restaurants; the higher education experiences of the Fuzhounese second generation; and the contestation over Chinatown’s future in the face of Manhattan’s rapid gentrification. A native of Florida, Professor Guest studied Chinese at Beijing University and Middlebury College. He received his B.A. from Columbia University (East Asian Languages and Cultures), an M.A. from Union Theological Seminary (Religious Studies), and the M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. from The City University of New York Graduate Center (Anthropology). Brief Contents Part 1: Anthropology for the 21st Century Chapter 1: Anthropology in a Global Age Chapter 2: Culture Chapter 3: Fieldwork and Ethnography Chapter 4: Language 4 30 60 90 Part 2: Unmasking the Structures of Power Chapter 5: Race and Racism Chapter 6: Ethnicity and Nationalism Chapter 7: Gender Chapter 8: Sexuality Chapter 9: Kinship, Family, and Marriage Chapter 10: Class and Inequality 118 150 176 204 232 260 Part 3: Change in the Modern World Chapter 11: The Global Economy Chapter 12: Politics and Power Chapter 13: Religion Chapter 14: Health, Illness, and the Body Chapter 15: Art and Media 294 332 362 394 424 xv Contents Preface xxix What’s New in the Second Edition xxxiii Additional Resources xxxvi Acknowledgments xxxix Part 1: Anthropology for the 21st Century Chapter 1: Anthropology in a Global Age 4 Coke, Water, and the Women of Plachimada 5 What Is Anthropology? 8 8 Brief Background Anthropology’s Unique Approach Through What Lenses Do Anthropologists Gain a Comprehensive View of Human Cultures? Physical Anthropology 9 12 13 Archaeology 15 Linguistic Anthropology 16 Cultural Anthropology 17 What Is Globalization, and Why Is It Important for Anthropology? 18 Globalization and Anthropology 19 Globalization: Key Dynamics 19 Globalization and the Environment 22 How Is Globalization Transforming Anthropology? 24 24 Changing Communities Changing Research Strategies 25 xvii Toolkit Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Living in a Global Age Key Terms 29 Chapter 2: Culture 30 Culture and a McDonald’s Happy Meal 31 What Is Culture? 33 34 Culture is Learned and Taught Culture is Shared Yet Contested 35 Culture is Symbolic and Material 35 How Has the Culture Concept Developed in Anthropology? 41 Early Evolutionary Frameworks 41 American Historical Particularism 42 British Structural Functionalism 43 Culture and Meaning 43 How Are Culture and Power Related? Power and Cultural Institutions 45 46 Human Agency 48 How Much of Who You Are Is Shaped by Biology, and How Much by Culture? 49 Nature and Nurture 49 Hegemony 47 From Human Beings to Human Becomings: A Biocultural Process 51 Connecting Culture and Behavior 51 How is Culture Created? 52 52 Manufacturing the Desire to Consume How is Globalization Transforming Culture? The Global and Local in Tension: Homogenizing or Diversifying 54 55 Increasing Cosmopolitanism 56 Toolkit 58 58 Migration and the Global Flows of Culture Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Unpacking a Happy Meal Key Terms xviii 28 28 Contents 56 59 Chapter 3: Fieldwork and Ethnography 60 Death without Weeping: Fieldwork in a Brazilian Shantytown 61 What Is Unique about Ethnographic Fieldwork, and Why Do Anthropologists Conduct This Kind of Research? 63 Fieldwork Begins with People 64 Fieldwork as Social Science and as Art 66 Fieldwork Shapes the Anthropologist 64 Fieldwork Informs Daily Life 66 How Did the Idea of Fieldwork Develop? 67 67 Early Accounts of Encounters with Others Nineteenth-Century Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter 68 The Professionalization of Social Scientific Data Gathering and Analysis 68 Engaged Anthropology 74 How Do Anthropologists Get Started Conducting Fieldwork? 75 Preparation 75 Mapping 77 Strategies Skills and Perspectives 76 78 Analysis 79 How Do Anthropologists Write Ethnography? Polyvocality 80 81 Ethnographic Authority 82 What Moral and Ethical Concerns Guide Anthropologists in Their Research and Writing? 82 Do No Harm 82 Reflexivity Obtain Informed Consent 81 84 Ensure Anonymity 84 How Are Fieldwork Strategies Changing in Response to Globalization? 85 Changes in Process 85 Changes in Content 85 Contents xix Toolkit Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Applying Aspects of Fieldwork to Your Own Life 88 88 Key Terms 89 Chapter 4: Language 90 Language and Immigration Debates in Arizona 91 What Is Language and Where Does It Come From? 93 93 The Origins of Human Language Descriptive Linguistics 95 Nonverbal Communication: Kinesics and Paralanguage 96 How Does Language Shape Our Ways of Thinking? 98 98 Language, Thought, and Culture The Role of Focal Vocabulary 99 How Do Systems of Power Intersect with Language and Communication? 100 The “ N-Word” 100 Language and Dialect 104 Historical Linguistics 108 What Are the Effects of Globalization on Language? 109 Diminishing Language Diversity 109 Hastening Language Loss 112 Toolkit 114 114 Language and Gender Language Variation in the United States Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Language, Immigration, and U.S. Culture Key Terms 102 104 115 Part 2: Unmasking the Structures of Power xx Chapter 5: Race and Racism 118 Policing and Racial Inequality 119 Contents Do Biologically Separate Races Exist? Fuzzy Boundaries in a Well-Integrated Gene Pool 122 123 The Wild Goose Chase: Linking Phenotype to Genotype 124 How Is Race Constructed around the World? 126 126 Race and the Legacy of Colonialism How Is Race Constructed in the United States? Race and the U.S. Census 129 130 The Rule of Hypodescent 133 Race and Immigration 134 What Is Racism? Types of Racism 138 139 Race, Racism, and Whiteness 144 Toolkit 148 148 History of U.S. Racial Categories: Constructing Whiteness Resisting Racism Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Shifting Our Perspectives on Race and Racism 131 142 Key Terms 149 Chapter 6: Ethnicity and Nationalism 150 The Soccer World Cup 151 What Does “Ethnicity” Mean to Anthropologists? 154 154 Ethnicity as Identity Creating Ethnic Identity 155 How and Why Is Ethnicity Created, Mobilized, and Contested? 158 Ethnicity as a Source of Conflict 159 Ethnicity as a Source of Opportunity 164 Assimilation Versus Multiculturalism: Ethnic Interaction in United States 166 What Is the Relationship of Ethnicity to the Nation? Imagined Communities and Invented Traditions 167 168 The Challenges of Developing a Sense of Nationhood 171 Anti-Colonialism and Nationalism 170 Contents xxi Toolkit Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Who Is an American? Key Terms 175 Chapter 7: Gender 176 Women in the U.S. Military 177 Are Men and Women Born or Made? 179 179 Distinguishing between Sex and Gender The Cultural Construction of Gender 181 The Performance of Gender 184 Are There More Than Two Sexes? 186 186 A Theory of Five Sexes Alternate Sexes, Alternate Genders 188 How Do Anthropologists Explore the Relationship between Gender and Power? 190 Revisiting Early Research on Male Dominance 191 Gender Stereotypes, Gender Ideology, and Gender Stratification 193 Challenging Gender Ideologies and Stratification 196 How Is Globalization Transforming Gender Roles and Stratification? 199 Impacts on Women in the Labor Force 199 Gendered Patterns of Global Migration 201 Toolkit 202 202 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Broadening Your View of the Cultural Construction of Gender Key Terms 203 Chapter 8: Sexuality 204 Sexual Assault on College Campuses 205 What Is Sexuality and Where Does It Come From? 208 208 The Intersection of Sexuality and Biology xxii 174 174 Sexuality and Culture 211 What Is the Scope of Human Sexuality When Seen in a Global Perspective? 212 Same-Gender “Mati Work” in Suriname 213 Contents Machismo and Sexuality in Nicaragua 214 Sexuality and Pleasure in Corporate Japan 215 How Has Sexuality Been Constructed in the United States? 216 The Invention of Heterosexuality 216 “White Weddings” 219 How Is Sexuality an Arena for Working Out Relations of Power? 222 Intersections of Race and Sexuality For Black Gay Women 222 Sex, Disability, and Social Justice in Denmark and Sweden 224 How Does Globalization Influence Local Expressions of Sexuality? 226 Sexuality, Language, and the Effects of Globalization in Nigeria 226 Toolkit Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Sexuality in Your Life 230 230 Key Terms 231 Chapter 9: Kinship, Family, and Marriage 232 Transparent: Shifting Notions of Family and Kinship in America 233 How Are We Related to One Another? 236 236 Descent Marriage and Affinal Ties 244 Are Biology and Marriage the Only Basis for Kinship? 249 249 Houses, Hearths, and Kinship: The Langkawi of Malaysia Creating Kin to Survive Poverty: Black Networks near Chicago, Illinois 251 How Are Ideas of Kinship Linked to the Nation-State? 251 252 Reproducing Jews: Issues of Artificial Insemination in Israel How Is Kinship Changing in the Modern World? The Nuclear Family: The Ideal Versus the Reality 253 253 The Impact of Assisted Reproductive Technologies 255 Chosen Families Families of Same-Sex Partners 255 256 Contents xxiii Toolkit Thinking Like an Anthropologist: Kinship in Personal and Global Perspective 258 258 Key Terms 259 Chapter 10: Class and Inequality 260 The Flint Water Contamination Crisis 261 Is Inequality a Natural Part of Human Culture? 263 264 Egalitarian Societies Ranked Societies 265 How Do Anthropologists Analyze Class and Inequality? 266 267 Theories of Class How Are Class and Inequality Constructed? Ethnographic Studies of Class in the United States 273 274 The Roots of Poverty 279 A Look at the Numbers 277 The “Culture of Poverty”: Poverty as Pathology 280 Poverty as a Structural Economic Problem 281 What Makes Class and Inequality Largely Invisible? 282 283 Consumer Culture What Are the Effects of Global Inequality? 284 Street Vendors in the Global Economy 285 Class and the Circulation of Water in Mumbai, India 286 Thinking Globally about Inequality 287 Toolkit 290 290 Thinking Like an Anthropologist: The Dynamics of Class through Water and Beyond Key Terms 291 Part 3: Change in the Modern World xxiv Chapter 11: The Global Economy 294 Chocolate and Civil War in Côte d’Ivoire 295 Contents What Is an Economy, and What Is Its Purpose? From Foraging to Industrial Agriculture: A Brief Survey of Food Production 298 298 Distri...
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