Running head: [SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS] 1 Differentiate between different types of cell division:
[SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS] 2 Cell Division: Cell division is the process cells go through to divide. There are several types of cell division, depending upon what type of organism is dividing. Organisms have evolved over time to have different and more complex forms of cell division. Most prokaryotes, or bacteria, use binary fission to divide the cell. Eukaryotes of all sizes use mitosis to divide. Sexually-reproducing eukaryotes use a special form of cell division called meiosis to reduce the genetic content in the cell. This is necessary in sexual reproduction because each parent must give only half of the required genetic material, otherwise the offspring would have too much DNA, which can be a problem. Why do Cells divide? Cells divide for many reasons. For example, when you skin your knee, cells divide to replace old, dead, or damaged cells. Cells also divide so living things can grow. When organisms grow, it isn't because cells are getting larger. Organisms grow because cells are dividing to produce more and more cells. In human bodies, nearly two trillion cells divide every day. Types of Cell division: Cells are of two types 1. Prokaryotics 2. Eukaryotics Prokaryotic cell division:
[SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS] 3 Prokaryotes replicate through a type of cell division known as binary fission . Prokaryotes are simple organism, with only one membrane and no division internally. Thus, when a prokaryote divides, it simply replicates the DNA and splits in half. The process is a little more complicated than this, as DNA must first be unwound by special proteins. Although the DNA in prokaryotes usually exists in a ring, it can get quite tangled when it is being used by the cell. To copy the DNA efficiently, it must be stretched out. This also allows the two new rings of DNA created to be separated after they are produced. The two strands of DNA separate into two different sides of the prokaryote cell. The cell then gets longer, and divides in the middle. Eukarytic Cell divison: It is of two types 1. Mitosis 2. Meosis In order to understand the eukarytic cell divisons, first we have to understand the cell cycle. Cell cycle:
[SHORTENED TITLE UP TO 50 CHARACTERS] 4 Actively dividing eukaryote cells pass through a series of stages known collectively as the cell cycle : two gap phases (G1 and G2); an S (for synthesis) phase, in which the genetic material is duplicated; and an M phase, in which mitosis partitions the genetic material and the cell divides.
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- Mitosis, Different Types of Cell Division