Midterm notes

Midterm notes - 1/24/08 Plato's Republic (Book 2) A book...

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1/24/08 Plato’s Republic (Book 2) A book that outlines Plato’s idea of the perfect city-state The arts Plato didn’t have the modern concept of the arts o Visual arts, paintings, poetry, dance, music, etc. Crafts of Representation o One who makes beds is a craftsman; one who paints is a craftsman A craftsman makes either physical things or representations of a physical thing Poetry excluded from craft o “possession of the muse” inspirational poetry, prophecy, virtuous person o cannot be taught to do; is a gift Principle poet in Plato’s eyes was Homer o Iliad and Odyssey Rhapsod o One who read poetry aloud to an audience Plato felt that representations are dangerous o Children and those who are simple-minded may become confused between representations and reality o Guardians (educated class) are supposed to rule the Utopia described in the republic Philosophers are educated class Govern everyone else o Craft carries the notion of specialization The craft of ruling is specialized Informed and knowledge Psyche’ (Mind) o Rational Part Most important Knowledge based Senses are deceptive, and cannot be trusted Ex: sun would be a disk in the sky the size of an orange reason o Irrational Part Emotional based Illusion Painting of an elephant o Vegetative part Involuntary functions
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Poetic fiction is bad because it misrepresents reality o Plato’s first charge against literary works is that it’s falsey Many stories that are told are false representations Reality is misrepresented If divine is represented, then they must be perfect Do no bad o Iliad is misrepresenting gods, even though it is fiction If gods are perfect, they cannot be the source of evil o Book 3 Epistemic aspect Knowledgeable expression of propositions Poetic fiction has a bad moral effect on people o Fictional literature can make a person express emotion in socially inappropriate ways Makes it seem ok to those who don’t know better o Plato loves Homer because of his enchantric writing, even though the writing can be seen as bad Nothing is more important than the truth Must look beyond the writing to the message 1/29/08 God o Concept of a bed Craftsman o Maker of a bed Artist o Representation of a bed Names are the only clear concept in language o Every adjective and noun must have reference to an individual Doesn’t really work for things Chairs instead of each one having an individual name Plato’s question o What does the word “bed” refer to? Plato’s abstract terms don’t have reference to individuals All beds have reference to ideas (form) Plato’s Theory of Forms o They’re all called beds because they all have reference to the form/idea of a bed There are individual beds, and the concept of being a bed If a Neanderthal makes the first bed out of animal skins, the concept existed all
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PHIL 201 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Midterm notes - 1/24/08 Plato's Republic (Book 2) A book...

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