HIST 200 Midterm #2 Incomplete Study Guide (Spring Semester 2007)

HIST 200 Midterm #2 Incomplete Study Guide (Spring Semester 2007)

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A. Diversity question: Slavery – the question of agency By the time of the Revolution, about 500,000 slaves and free blacks By 1790s: 750,000 Eve of Civil War: 3.9 million Between 1640 and 1670, slavery was institutionalized in Virginia - British don’t have any history of racial slavery in England, but Spain and Portugal had a history of slavery o How was slavery institutionalized? 1619: First blacks in America (initial contact) By late 1630s: Start seeing indication that black indentured servants are being treated differently than white indentured servants 1624: 22 blacks are recorded, not 1 is recorded as having a last name 11 of them: no first name given (“one negro”) o Suggestion of different treatment already 1639: Blacks are prohibited from serving the militia and bearing arms 1640: 3 runaway indent servants, 2 whites, 1 black, caught, brought back to masters, and judgment was that the 2 whites would be whipped and ordered to serve their master for another year. The black was whipped and ordered to serve the master for the rest of his life. Again, different treatment 1641: First selling of a black child, offspring of a black indentured servant, is sold to an indentured servant 1640s, 1650s: Prices for black indentured servants steadily going up Because the length of the indentured service goes up 1660s: English settlers from Barbados come to South Carolina with their slaves 1670: Governor of Virginia noted that there were 40,000 people in VA, of which 6,000 Christian servants and 2,000 black slaves 1670: institution is set o Hallmark: child takes the status of the mother for life If mother is slave, the child is a slave for life Important thing in getting Virginia to accept slavery: color (through Elizabethan terms) o Black: means sullenness, things that are hidden, things that are evil, things that are ignorant, things that are heathenish, things that are horrible, wicked, threatening o White: positive, light, good, virtuous, intelligent, Godliness Institution that emerges - Look at slavery in terms of material conditions (housing, clothing, diet, health) o Slavery housing: dirty, scantily painted, dirt floor, crowded, no partitions in the room
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o Clothing: varies (men: 4 shirts/pants, women: 4 dresses), made out of coarse cloth (“negro cloth”) o Diet: cornmeal, salt pork, vegetables (supplemented in season), some fruit, most masters allow slaves to hunt and fish, diet is characterized by bulk and not by balance, no starvation (tends to be enough food) but lack of balance (dietary deficiencies scurvy and beri beri) o Health care: bad for blacks as well as for whites, wrongheaded notions of what causes illnesses, planters try to provide good medical care for slaves, fevers are the calamity (blacks are more susceptible to yellow fever than to malaria), dysentery, typhoid, mild and acute neurosis, slaves would get the “melancholies,” infanticide o Control: religion (would state that one should be satisfied with their life),
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HIST 200 Midterm #2 Incomplete Study Guide (Spring Semester 2007)

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