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ECON 366 Notes (09.08.2008)

ECON 366 Notes (09.08.2008) - Econ 366 Notes Monday...

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Econ 366 Notes Monday, September 8, 2008 Chapter 3: Urbanization and Economic Growth in the U.S. Economic growth: transfer or labor and inputs from rural agriculture to urban manufacturing link between industrialization, urbanization and economic growth - Country that has grown more rapidly/faster/over longer period of time is more industrialized and more urbanized , while country that hasn’t quite grown as much is more rural USA urbanized later than Western Europe (already urbanized in the early 20 th century - In the end of the 18 th century, U.S. was mostly a rural and agriculture-based country o But, U.S. industrialized much faster than Western Europe Some Asian countries have industrialized even faster than U.S. - Question to ask: How has the U.S. industrialized and, concurrently, urbanized? Prerequisites - Technical progress in urban life o Developments in transportation, construction, sewerage, etc. to sustain the urban structure - Technical progress in agriculture o How do you get the people from rural areas? People in rural areas have to support growing number of people in the urban areas DISEASE Until modern times (before then, urban death rates were high because of bad sewerage infections spread rapidly) - Agriculture produced a surplus of both food and people – sustained urbanization o Urban death rates were high cities were unable to sustain themselves o Africa had high death rates in agriculture surplus of food and people were inadequate to sustain large urban areas o People emigrated to north respite from disease, allowed rural sector sufficient health to produce a surplus o Some infections spread to the north (Rome: 5,000/day died due to smallpox , bubonic plague killed up to 90% of city population) – plague reduced the population of Europe by 35%
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