Unformatted text preview: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence Forms of Thinking Concept formation Problem solving Making decisions and judgments Concept Formation Concepts Cognitive complexity Prototype Concept formation Problem Solving Trial and error Algorithm Heuristic Insight Problems in Problem Solving Confirmation Bias Fixation Mental set Functional fixedness Huffman, 2007 How we Make Decisions and the Problems we encounter: Representativeness heuristic Availability heuristic Overconfidence Framing Belief Bias Belief perseverance Which are more frequent causes of death in U.S.? All accidents or strokes (how sure are you?) Electrocution or asthma (how sure?) Homicide or diabetes (how sure?) Motor vehicle accident or colorectal cancer (how sure?) Drowning or leukemia (how sure?) Creativity 5 components of creativity Expertise Imaginative thinking skills Venturesome personality Intrinsic motivation Creative environment Language Language Structure Phoneme Morpheme Grammar Syntax Semantics Important Features of Language Semanticity Arbitrariness Flexibility of symbols Naming Displacement Productivity Language Development Cooing Babbling One-word stage Two-word stage Telegraphic speech Theories of Explaining Language Development B.F. Skinner: Operant Learning Noam Chomsky: Inborn Universal Grammar Cognitive Neuroscientists: Statistical Learning and Critical Periods Thinking and Language Linguistic Determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think Do animals think? Do animals exhibit language? Intelligence How do you operationally define intelligence? Intelligence generally defined:
A mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. Views on Intelligence Single ability Spearman Multiple Thurstone Guilford Single Cattell Multiple Gardner Sternberg Single Factor Approach to Intelligence Spearman General intelligence (g) Cattall General intelligence Fluid Crystallized Multiple Factor Approach to Intelligence Thurstone 7 primary abilities Guilford 120 factors Gardner Multiple intelligences Sternberg Triarchic theory
Huffman, 2007 Savant Syndrome a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing Measuring Intelligence Developers of IQ Tests Alfred Binet: Predicting School Achievement Lewis Terman: The Innate IQ Weschler: Verbal and Performance Scores Intelligence Tests Mental age Intelligence quotient (IQ) Original definition Current meaning Intelligence Tests Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Aptitude tests Achievement tests Huffman, 2007 Psychological Tests must be: Standardized Reliable Valid Standardization Testing procedures Representative sample Normal distribution Owens, 2001 Reliability
Measured by the consistency of scores on: Two halves of the test (split-half) Alternate forms of the test Retesting (test-retest) Validity Content validity Predictive validity Influences on Intelligence Genetics Environment Ethnicity Gender Genetics Heritability of intelligence is 50% to 70%, Twin studies Adoption studies Intelligence and Neurology There is a correlation between brain size (adjusted for body size) and intelligence scores Brain's function and intelligence Brain Glucose Consumption Processing speed Perceptual speed Neurological speed Environment The Flynn effect People getting smarter Why? Deprivation Effects Children in impoverished environments have lower IQs Cumulative effect Enrichment Effects Dramatic social and educational improvements result in higher IQs Disadvantaged children adopted into advantaged families Early intervention Schooling effects Ethnicity Modest differences Formal testing situations Stereotype threat Environment Gender Boys and Girls do not differ in general intelligence Girls Strength in language abilities why? Boys Strength in math abilities why? Genetics and Environment Mental Retardation Based on the 1990 census, an estimated 6.2 to 7.5 million people have mental retardation. Mental retardation is 10 times more common than cerebral palsy and 28 times more prevalent than neural tube defects such as spina bifida. It affects 25 times as many people as blindness (Batshaw, 1997). Definition of Mental Retardation Significant limitations in Intellectual functioning Adaptive behavior Originates before age 18 Diagnosing Mental Retardation Step 1 Administer tests Step 2 Assess strengths and weaknesses Step 3 Determine needed supports Intelligence Assessment Mild MR: 50 70 Moderate MR: 35 49 Severe MR: 20 34 Profound MR: Below 20
Huffman 2007 Adaptive Behavior Assessment Batshaw, 1997 Describe the person's strengths and weaknesses across four dimensions. 1. Intellectual and adaptive behavior skills 2. Psychological/emotional considerations 3. Physical/health/etiological considerations 4. Environmental considerations Determine needed supports across the four dimensions Intermittent support Limited support Extensive support Pervasive support Epidemiology of Severe and Mild MR Batshaw, 1997 Causes of Mental Retardation Batshaw, 1997 Behavior Problems Associated with Mental Retardation Treatments Behavioral Interventions Environmental Modifications Psychotropic Medication Batshaw, 1997 ...
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- Spring '08
- Intelligence quotient, Mental retardation, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, General Intelligence, Mental Age Intelligence