Logic_Review - PHL 245 S: Course Review General Points...

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PHL 245 S: Course Review General Points about the Final Exam In this course, we covered Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10 of The Logic Book . The final exam is comprehensive . However, you may expect the exam to be weighted towards material from the second half of the course – after all, mastery of this later material depends upon mastery of the earlier material . You have not yet been tested on material from Chapter 10 (and some from Chapter 8) – expect special emphasis on this material. The best way to study for this test is to review all your class notes, read relevant portions of the textbook, and, above all , practice ! (Merely reading this document is no substitute for all that.) Also, be sure to review your tests to discover your stronger and weaker areas. Devote more study time to your weaker areas, and be sure to come see us in office hours for help with any material that you don’t fully understand. We’re here to help !!!!!! Chapter One Logic: Course Review (Klaas J. Kraay) 1
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We learned what an argument is, and how to standardize arguments (how to put arguments in standard form ). Distinction between deductive and inductive arguments, definition of inductive strength . Basic terms: Deductive Validity Deductive Soundness Logical Consistency Logical Truth Logical Falsity Logical Indetermincy Logical Equivalence Think about the relationships between these concepts – the true-false questions on Test 1 were designed to test whether you could manipulate these definitions. Special cases of validity : conclusion is logically true , premises are logically inconsistent , one premise is logically false . Chapter Two Logic: Course Review (Klaas J. Kraay) 2
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Atomic vs molecular sentences; truth-functional connectives: & ~ Characteristic truth-tables for each. Special cases: UNLESS, EXCLUSIVE OR, NOT BOTH, NEITHER NOR. * Now that we know DeMorgan’s Law , it is clearer why there are two ways to symbolize “not both” and “neither nor”. And, now that we know Implication , it is easier to see why there are two ways to symbolize ‘unless’. Non-standard English locutions for the sentential connectives: (but, however, etc. .) ‘ONLY IF’ vs ‘IF’ vs ‘IF AND ONLY IF’ AT LEAST (ONE, TWO) EXACTLY (ONE, TWO) AT MOST (ONE, TWO) Object language vs meta-language, use/mention distinction. Translating sentences of SL into
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Logic_Review - PHL 245 S: Course Review General Points...

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