FMLY1010 - CH1-3 .docx - 1.1 Beginning Lifespan development is a diverse and growing field that covers the entire lifespan of individual from birth to

FMLY1010 - CH1-3 .docx - 1.1 Beginning Lifespan development...

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1.1 Beginning Lifespan development is a diverse and growing field that covers the entire lifespan of individual from birth to death, examining the ways in which people develop physically, intellectually, and socially LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT =the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behaviour that occur throughout the lifespan =focuses on human =researchers test their assumptions by applying scientific methods Topical Areas PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT =examining the ways in which the body’s makeup-the brain, nervous system, muscles and senses and the need for food, drink and sleep- helps determine behaviour (ex. Effects of malnutrition) COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT =seeking to understand how growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behaviour =examines learning, memory, problem solving and intelligence (ex. Problem-solving skills change over time) SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT =the way in which individual’s interactions and relationships with others grow, change and remain stable over the course of life (ex. Effects of racism) Age Ranges & Individual Differences Prenatal period: conception to birth Infancy: birth-2 Early childhood: 2-6 Middle childhood: 6-12 Adolescence: 12-20 Young adulthood: 20-40 Middle adulthood: 40-65 Late adulthood: 65-death SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION =shared notion of reality that is widely accepted but is a function of society and culture at given time =substantial individual differences exist in the timing of events in people’s lives COHORT =group of people born at around the same time in the same place =have similar influences on members of a particular cohort (ex. Wars, economic upturns and depressions, famines, epidemics) Cohort Effects HISTORY-GRADED INFLUENCES =biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment (ex. Areas affected by 1998 ice storm shared biological and environmental challenges) AGE-GRADED INFLUENCES =biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of when or where they are raised (ex. Puberty, menopause) SOCIOCULTURAL-GRADED INFLUENCES =social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual, and depending on such variable as ethnicity, social class, and subcultural membership (ex. White and non-white children) NON-NORMATIVE LIFE EVENT =that occurs unexpectedly, such as natural disasters, loss of a family member or war Four important issues in lifespan development: Continuous Change vs Discontinuous Change CONTINUOUS CHANGE =development is gradual, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels =quantitative; remains the same over the lifespan
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DISCONTINUOUS CHANGE =occurring in distinct stages; each stage brings about behaviour that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behaviour at earlier stages =quantitative and qualitative =means change is not just in the amount of memory but also in the kind Critical and Sensitive Periods: Impact of Environmental Events CRITICAL PERIOD
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