ET-Ch05 - The Eukaryotic Cell - What’s different than in...

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Unformatted text preview: The Eukaryotic Cell - What’s different than in prolcaryotes‘? - Membrane bounded nucleus and organelles - Extensive c-ompartmentalization and internal organization - A diploid complement of linear chromosomes c-omplexed u-Fith histone proteins NUCLEUS l—I Nuclear Nuclear Mitcrthoncirion membrane PDI'E Nuclealus Lyaosrume Hihmme Golgi apparatus Flnugh ER Smouth ER _ Mitcchond r1'a Flagella and cilia: locomotion ' Eulearyctic flagella are chemically different frcm bacterial cnea while they haye aimilar flmcticna. (Bacterial flagellar filamenta are made cf the pretein flagellinr while in etllearyctea they are made cf a certain arrangen‘rent (“9+2”) of micrctubulea [the pretein tubulin. D * A eulearyctic cell may pcaaeaa cilia (which haye nc bacterial equiyalent): they haye the same structure aa flagella. but are ahcrter and mere numercua. Cell walls and the gl}--'C-oeal}--*:~; Algae have oell walla made largely of Cfllllllflfifi. a aimple glueoae polymer. Animal oella and protozoa have no oell walla. Fmigal cells have oell walla made of ohitini whieh ia eaaentially a repeating NAGpol}-'1ne1‘. NopeptidoglyeanttltHUME!!!EHHHHEH Animal oella and protozoana often have a gl}-’CDCHIYX (outerm oat layer) associated with their plaam a membrane: it may have to do with adheaion and proteotion of the oelle and baaieall}? reaemblea the proloiryotie eomiterpart. The plasma membrane - Consists of a phospholipid bilayer associated with various proteins (the fluid-mosaic model) GIL-E01131 Mffltflln Maj or functions * Delineate eell boundafig and held in the e-entents ' To control transpeltatien of substances into and eut of the cell (they are selectively permeable). * There are four ways for things te get aeress a plasma 111e1nbrane... I Transport processes Simple diffusion - earben diesidei oxygen Osmosis - water Faeilitated (passive) diffusion - glueose — Requires ean'ier proteins but no energy Aetire transport - Inns (Na, K) — Requires earrier pretein and ener Simple Diffusion and Osmosis ' Simple diffusion is a general prinoiple of ehemistljr - things more along their concentration gradient from higher to lower oonoentration. In this context, moleoules or atoms that can use simple diffusion to oross a membrane have properties that allow them to “act” as if the membrane is not there - it presents no barrier to such entities. Ir Osmosis is really a special ease of diffusion: the movement of water aoross a semi-permeable membrane along its oonoentration gradient. Tonicity and osmotic relationships - Isotonic - concentration of water the same inside/outside - Hypotonic - concentration of water is greater outside - Hypertonic - concentration of water is greater inside Plasma Blue arrows indicate the MEMhr—IEIHE movement of water. in a hypotonic In an isotonic in a hypenonic solution water solution there solution water enters the cell. is no net movement leaves the cell. 1which can burst. of wamr. 1which contacts. ' During f36111tat6d {11311310111 t116 t1*3113po1*t6d 311113t31166 13 follow-111g 1t3 66116-611t1'3t1611 93111161111 but 13 too larg61 too 1301311, 01* 130111.: to 611133 t116 11161111113116. A 313661116- tra11311161111113116 t1‘3113po11 pmt6111 36t3 to “613611 3 361661116 {1661" to t116 11101661116 111 (1116-3110111 0116-6 t116 cloor 13 613611, £11ff1131011 131*OC-66C13 N11 61161*g}=' 13 1*6q1111‘6CL ' During flC—tififi t1‘31131301t, 1116116611163 316 “131111113631” 116111 31633 of 1613-761 66116-611trat161116 31633 of 111g116r 66116-611t13t1611. T1113 1‘6quir63 not only a 36166-t11'6 t1‘3113port 1311116111., but 6116 that 6311 11}"(11‘O1j,-"Z¢ ATP for 611mg}; 33 t1113 13166633 dflfillitcljf 1*6q1111*63 61161*g}-'. Facilitated Diffusion (Passive Transport) Extracellular environment Direction ef Diffusion Transport PhDEF’l‘IflliPid Cytoplasm Protein Eukaryotie organelles The nucleus Ir Containa the genetic material (DNA) in the form of long} linear elnomoaomea. “Control center” or “brain” of the eelL * Haa a nuelear envelope eonaiating of two plasma membranes dotted with nuclear porea. ' A TiSil‘llr} nueleolua ia the aite of produetion of riboaomal aubunita. Nuclear envelope Nude-mus Nuclear pores _ Chromatin EndOplasmic reticulum (ER) * Part of the o-}-'to1no111brano Systonn tho ER is a continuous network of tubes 3111Tou1ldo£ll1}-' a Single- 11161111111111: * Rough ER has aosooiatod ribouonlou and funotions mainly in tranoporting proteinn to tho 1313311111 11161111113116 for soc-ration or insoflion. Tho rough ER originatou from tho outor nuclear lllfllllbl‘flllfl ' Smooth ER 1133 no asuooiatod 1*i11o3131111133,~ and i3 involved with lipid biouynthonin among other things. n ' " _ Ribnmme Smooth ER 1|.r'esid-s: Ruugh ER The Golgi Complex * Series of flattened saosl the Golgi apparatus receives proteins and lipids from the ER? then sorts,~ pae—liagesl and delivers them to their final destinations Tia secretory Yesieles. These destinations inelude l}-'soso1nes and the plasma membrane. Lysosomes ' Intracellular recj_»--'c-li11;r::,1r centerar a sac surrounded by cue membrane cc11tai11i11gr Yaricua ll}-—’drcl}1ic enzymea. * If 3-'011*1*e a prctczcam the lyacacme ia ycur “atcmach and inteatinea“. ' Lyacacmal atcrage diaeaaea exist in which materials build up in the lyacacmeafi fcr example Tags-Sacha diaeaael Ribosomes 1' Just like in pmkaljrotes, but bigger. ' PR(Z)TEIN SYNTHESIS Mitochondria Consist of a double 111e111bra11e; the inner one is hi ghly folded and the folds are called oristae. The soluble portion is called the matrix. The}? function in aerobic:- oellular respiration (generation of ATP) and are present in all eulezaryotio oells. h-Iitoohonrlria have their own ribosomes and a single, oiroular DNA moleoule. Mitochondrinn Structure Matrix Inner Deter Membrane Membrane |_H Double Membrane Chloroplasts Consist of two inonlhranos and a Eerie-3 of intornal inolnbranoufl sac-s oallod tllFlElliOidS; staoko of tllFlflliDiClS aro oallod grano Thoso oontain tho GlllOl‘OpllFlL Tho Soluble inner portion i3 oallod tho Sthlllfl. Function in 1:111otor:3-—*11tlm3i3 in :11 goo Chloroplaots oontain tlloir ou-Fn ribosoinofl and a Singlo, oiroular DNA molecule. Chinroplast Envelope {Double Membmnel DNA Strand Thylakuids 5t mma 3'05 RibosomEi The Endosymbiont Theow * It is fairly well established that both 111iteehendria and chloroplasts are evolutionary derived from bacteria. This idea was put forth by Lynn 1\-=1argulis. ' Leek at them - the}? are the size and shape of bacteria? and each has its 011711 eireular elu*01110s0111e I It Genetic- eemparisens have shes-1711 111iteehendria and ehlereplasts to he phylagenetic-all}-r related to particular haeteria. ...
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ET-Ch05 - The Eukaryotic Cell - What’s different than in...

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