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Unformatted text preview: Regional English Dialects in the USA Dialects Theme: Regional Dialect Patterns LIN 200 JC Weisenberg Feb 12th, 2009 Language Attitudes Language Look at the map of the United States. Write down any words that come to mind to describe the speech of people in different parts come of the country. Regional Dialects Regional Why do people speak differently as you move around the US? you • European settlement began as isolated European communities communities • Settlers brought their own distinct Settlers dialects and languages with them. dialects American Dialect Regions American Dialect Map apping/map.html Major Dialect Areas described: as/NationalMap/NationalMap.html#H eading7 Major regional dialects of the United States Major New England - Noted for fronted /a/ in “car” and loss Noted and of post-vocalic /r/ in urban areas. of The Mid - Atlantic (NYC, NJ) ‘non-rhotic’ or /r/-less Atlantic less dialect. dialect. The South: ‘non-rhotic’ or /r/-less dialect, Noted for The less monophthongization of ‘ay’ /aI/ > /a:/ The Midland: a residual domain with much greater The diversity, where most individual cities have developed dialect patterns of their own. The North: centered on Chicago, the Great Lakes to The centered upper New York state. upper The West: including California and the mid-west. Noted The west. for preservation of ‘post-vocalic’ /r/. Lexical Variation Do you call it a pail or a bucket? pail or bucket Do you say to get a cold or catch cold get or catch Does the ‘s’ iin greasy sound like /s/ or n greasy sound /z/? /z/? • Which of these patterns is Northern? Which Midlands? Midlands? New England /r/ New Where would we expect to find /r/-lless ess Where speech in New England? Along the coast or inland? or TLN/map4.html Mapping Dialect Boundaries Mapping isogloss: a geographic boundary line geographic delimiting the area in which a given linguistic feature occurs. linguistic Isogloss Isogloss For ‘r’ For dropping Modern Day Lexical Variation: soda vs. pop vs. coke soda vs. coke What do you call a carbonated What beverage? beverage? ats/total-county.html IPA: English Vowels IPA: Southern Vowel Shift Southern /I/ - /ε/ merger before /n/ and /m/ e.g. the vowels in pin/pen sound the same. e.g. sound /pIn/ /pεn/ /p /I/ - /i/ merger before /l/ e.g. the vowels in still/steel sound the same. e.g. sound /stil/ /stIl/ Southern Shift Southern A map showing the pin/pen merger: map pin/pen maps/Map3.html A map showing the still/steel merger: map still/steel maps/Map4.html The red circles are the speakers who are completely merged, in both production and perception. The heaviest concentration is found both und in the Southern States. in Pin/Pen Merger Pin/Pen Still/Steel Merger Still/Steel Northern Cities Shift Northern The Northern Cities Chain Shift is a series of innovations in the vowels of the English spoken in the urban centers that surround the American side of the Great Lakes: Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and Buffalo, Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, Columbus, and Indianapolis. Indianapolis. Northern Cities Shift Northern Ann > Ian Ann bit > bet bit bet > bat bet lunch > launch lunch talk > tuck talk locks > lax locks Northern Cities Shift Northern Diagram of The Northern Cities Chain Diagram Shift Shift east/ncshift/ncshift2.html Northern Cities Shift Northern Low Back Merger Low Merger of vowel /a/ and / /. Merger Cot/caught Don/Dawn Don/Dawn /kat/ /k /dan/ /k t/ /d n/ /d n/ Low Back Merger: cot/caught cot/caught A map showing the cot/caught merger map cot/caught las/maps/Map1.html There are three main areas where the merger was initiated independently: Eastern There ndently: New England, Western Pennsylvania, and the West. The red circles showing New showing invariant merger are most consistent in these areas; it is apparent that the merger invariant ent is still in progress in the West, and considerable variation is shown in the largest cities (Los Angeles, the Bay Area). cities Coastal New England, Outer Banks Fishing Communities Banks Centralization of the /aI/ diphthong tide fire night night [taId] [faIr] [naIt] [t Id] “oy” d] [f Ir] “oy” [n It] “oy” t] Discussion Discussion Why do dialect differences persist despite intense exposure to a national “network standard?” What are the social consequences of changing the way you speak? Of not changing the way you speak? changing Southern American English (SAE) English Language vs. Dialect Language What’s the difference between a What the language and a dialect? language “A language is a dialect with an army language and a navy.” (Max Weinreich) and (Max Weinreich Language is a “system” Phonology (sounds/ pronunciation) Grammar (word order, prefixes, suffixes) Lexicon (vocabulary) slang Language vs. Dialect Language Phonology Grammar Lexicon Phonology Grammar Lexicon Phonology Grammar Lexicon The conclusion to be drawn from this pattern or set of rules is that dialects, too, have their own dialects too, grammar grammar Dialects are not just “bad” or “wrong” ways of Dialects are or ways speaking; they are subject to grammatical rules jjust ust grammatical like any other variety of a language. In this, dialects differ from "broken language" or an imperfectly learned second language. learned Attitudes about the South Attitudes Do you have positive or negative feelings about the South? about Where do negative stereotypes about the South come from? South What do you think about the way people talk in the South? (Southern American English or SAE) English ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2009 for the course LIM 200 taught by Professor Weisenberg during the Spring '09 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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