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Unformatted text preview: Arab American Language and Culture Language
LIN 200 What languages are spoken by people from the Middle East? people http://www.ling.su.se/staff/ljuba/maps/middle-east.jpeg Arabic Berber Persian Kurdish Turkish Baluch Caucasian Hebrew Arabic Arabic
• Arabic is an Afro-Asiatic language (Semitic Afro-Asiatic branch, like Hebrew) spoken by 221 million people in the Middle East and North Africa.
Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Palestinian West Bank & Gaza, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, Uzbekistan and Yemen. • It ranks 5th among world languages in terms of number of speakers. terms Varieties of Arabic Varieties There are two main types of written Arabic: Arabic:
• Classical Arabic - the language of the Qur'an and classical literature. It differs from Modern Standard Arabic mainly in style and vocabulary, some of which is archaic. All Muslims are expected to recite the Qur'an in the original language, however many rely on translations in order to understand the text. Modern Standard Arabic - the universal language of the Arabic-speaking world which is understood by all Arabic speakers. It is the language of the vast majority of written Varieties of Arabic Varieties However, Each Arabic speaking country or region Each also has its own variety of colloquial spoken Arabic. These colloquial varieties of Arabic appear in written form in some poetry, cartoons and comics, plays and personal letters. There are also translations of the bible into most varieties of colloquial Arabic. colloquial Only Standard Arabic is taught in schools. Varieties of Arabic Varieties
Over 30 different varieties of colloquial Arabic, including: Over Egyptian - spoken by about 46 million people in Egypt and perhaps the most widely understood variety, thanks to the popularity of Egyptian-made films and TV shows popularity Algerian - spoken by about 22 million people in Algeria Moroccan/Maghrebi - spoken in Morocco by about 19.5 million people million Sudanese - spoken in Sudan by about 19 million people Saidi - spoken by about 19 million people in Egypt North Levantine - spoken in Lebanon and Syria by about 15 million people million Mesopotamian - spoken by about 14 million people in Iraq, Iran and Syria Iran Najdi - spoken in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan and Syria by about 10 million people about Diglossia Diglossia Charles Ferguson is credited with first using the Charles term diglossia in an article which he wrote in 1959 diglossia called Diglossia. Diglossia He identified four languages, Arabic, Greek, He Arabic Greek Haitian Creole and Swiss German as being prime Haitian Swiss examples of languages which fit into his definition of diglossia. Very simply stated, he said that diglossic speech communities have a High variety that is very prestigious (MSA) and a Low variety that and with no official status (e.g. local varieties of Arabic). Arabic). Phonology - Consonants Phonology Phonemes not found in English / ɣ/ /baɣdaad/ 'Baghdad’ /x/ /xamsa/ ‘five’ /q/ /qahwa/ ʼcoffeeʼ /ʕ / /ʕarabijja/ 'Arabic’ /ħ/ /ħaadʒ/ 'pilgrimage’ “Emphatic” Consonants
r r r r /T/ /D/ /DH/ /S/ /Taalib/ /Daabit/ /bajDHaaʔ/ /Sabaaħ/ 'student’ 'officer’ 'white’ 'morning’ SA has no phoneme for /p/ or /g/. Phonology - Vowels Phonology Arabic has very few vowels, but distinguishes Arabic between long and short vowels. between Long: /aa/ Short: /a/ /ii/ /i/ /uu/ /u/ (Iraqi Arabic dialect: /ee/ /oo/ ) Phonology – Syllable Structure Phonology Standard Arabic: [ CVCC ] Three consonants may never be clustered Three consecutively. consecutively. Vowel epenthesis (insertion) Other dialects: [ CCVC ] SA: /ʃams/ SA:/bujuut/ IA:/ʃamis/ IA:/bjuut/ Syllable structure can change a lot: /ustaað/ /asaatiða/ ’professor’ ’professors’ Morphology Morphology Triconsonantal roots (sometimes 2 or 4) Example: k - t – b ‘write’ /katab/ and /kuttib/ Morphology Morphology Other k-t-b words: /katab/ ‘to write’ /kattab/ ‘to teach (make someone write) /maktab/ ‘office’ /maktaba/ ‘library’ /kaatib/ ‘writer’ /kitaab/ ‘book’ /kutubii/ ‘bookseller’ /miktab/ ‘typewriter’ Dictionary: words are indexed by their root Dictionary: consonants! consonants! Syntax/Morphology Syntax/Morphology VSO language No present-tense verb 'to be’ “Pro-drop” language Definiteness = prefix rather than definite article Case markers – often ignored Duals: Duals: /Taalib/ /Taalibaan/ /Tullaab/ 'student’ 'two students’ ‘students (3 or more)’ Arabic Writing System Arabic 28 letters Letters for emphatic sounds (S, D, DH, T, H, ʕ) Letter for /ð/, /θ/, glottal stop Right to left, cursive script Short vowels have low status Left out of most books, newspapers, etc. Written in poetry, the Qu'ran, etc. Letters have a different form depending Letters on their position on Arabic Alphabet Arabic Arabic Numbers Arabic
The first set of numbers is from Modern Standard Arabic The second set is from Moroccan Arabic Language Names Language
Do you speak ... = hal tatakalam... Do hal English = al-inkliiziya English al-inkliiziya French = al-faransiya French al-faransiya German = al-almaaniya German al-almaaniya Spanish = al-isbaaniya Spanish al-isbaaniya Chinese = aS-Siiniya Chinese aS-Siiniya Japanese = al-yaabaaniya Japanese al-yaabaaniya Arabic loanwords Arabic
Alchemy: al-keemiyaa (from disputed origins; possibly from al-keemiyaa the Greek khemeia "alchemy" via Arabic or from a purely arabic origin al-kammiyah : the quantity). arabic Algebra: al-jabr from the name of the book of the al-jabr Persian/Iranian scientist Khwarezmi Hesab e jabr o muqabeleh : the Calculus of subtraction and equality which has exposed the first algorithm for solving a first order Equation. Equation. Sugar, cotton, algorithm, nadir, zenith, harem, henna, Sugar, imam, jihad, fatwa, lute, macrame, minaret, massage, magazine…http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/turner/arabicspanish.htm magazine… Who are the Arab Americans? Who
Americans from the Middle East are U.S. Americans citizens and permanent residents who trace their ancestry to or who immigrated from Arabicancestry speaking places in southwestern Asia and speaking northern Africa, a region known as the Middle East. Not all people from the Middle East are Arabs. Most Arab Americans were born in the United States. States. Demographics
At least 3.5 million Americans are of Arab descent A third are concentrated in California, Michigan and New York. Another third are in these seven states: Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas and Virginia. Jersey, About half of Arab Americans live in 20 About metropolitan areas. The top four are Los Angeles County in California; Wayne and Oakland counties in Michigan; Brooklyn, N.Y., and Cook County, Ill. and Demographics Demographics
Origin Origin Religious Affiliation Religious *Catholic include Roman Catholic, Maronite, and Melkite (Greek Catholic)
**Orthodox includes Antiochian, Syrian, Greek, and Coptic ***Muslim includes Sunni, Shi’a, and Druze Demographics Several waves of immigrants from the Arabicspeaking countries of southwestern Asia and speaking North Africa that have been settling in the United States since the 1880s States More than 80 percent are U.S. citizens. Their Arab heritage reflects a culture that is Their thousands of years old and includes 22 Arab countries as diverse as Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Yemen, Tunisia and Palestine. Yemen, http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2006-02-12-our-arabic_x. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0517/p13s01-legn.html http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/06/front2454077.074305556.htm http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6824206 http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/archives/2007/05/uphill_battle_to_develo http://www.newsweek.com/id/117835 http://www.freep.com/legacy/jobspage/arabs/index.htm http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/15/AR2005 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2009 for the course LIM 200 taught by Professor Weisenberg during the Spring '09 term at SUNY Stony Brook.
- Spring '09