Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa - Chapter 6 SubSaharan Africa(Fig 6.1...

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Chapter 6: Sub- Saharan Africa (Fig. 6.1)
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Learning Objectives Become familiar with the physical, demographic, cultural, political and economic aspects of Africa Understand the roles of slavery, disease, and colonization in shaping Africa You should understand the following concepts and models: -Apartheid -Berlin Conference -Biofuels -Horn of Africa -Sahel -Pastoralists -Refugees -Swidden -Transhumance -Kleptocracy
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Introduction Africa south of the Sahara Desert A culturally diverse region World’s fastest-growing region More than 730 million people; 48 states and one territory In most countries, nearly 44% of the population is less than 15 years old Relatively low economic output In 1999, Sub-Saharan Africa’s economic output was just 1% of global output South Africa’s GNP is 44% of the GNP of the entire region Foreign aid helped improve agriculture, but led to large debt and corruption
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Introduction
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Environmental Geography: The Plateau Continent Largest landmass straddling the equator A plateau continent dominated by extensive uplifted areas Relatively poor soils and vulnerability to drought Africa’s Environmental Issues Desertification: the expansion of desert-like conditions as a result of human-induced degradation The Sahel and Desertification Sahel – zone of ecological transition between the Sahara to the north and wetter savannas and forests to the south Life is dependent on reliability of rains Transhumance: the movement of animals between wet- season and dry-season pasture
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Environmental Geography: The Plateau Continent (cont.) Africa’s Environmental Issues (cont.) Deforestation Extensive woodlands remain, but many forests have been replaced by grasslands or farms Results in shortages of biofuels: wood and charcoal used for household energy needs, especially cooking In some countries, women are organizing to plant trees Wildlife Conservation Wildlife survives because of historically low population density Wildlife populations currently declining » Poaching a problem » Sale of ivory (elephant tusks) has been prohibited
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Environmental Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa (Fig. 6.3)
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Environmental Geography: The Plateau Continent (cont.) Plateaus and Basins Elevated basins dominate the interior Great Escarpment: landform rimming much of southern Africa, impeding coastal settlement Watersheds Major river systems: Congo, Nile, Niger, Zambezi Soils Relatively infertile because they are old Most fertile soils located within Rift Valley Highland Ethiopia, Lake Victoria lowlands, central highlands of Kenya also have productive agricultural bases
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Physical Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa (Fig. 6.9)
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Environmental Geography: The Plateau Continent (cont.) Climate and Vegetation Warm year-round, while rainfall varies regionally Tropical Forests Congo Basin contains the second largest expanse of tropical rainforest in the world
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Sub-Saharan Africa - Chapter 6 SubSaharan Africa(Fig 6.1...

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