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Unformatted text preview: 12 by using the slope of the curve of carrier phases for pilots versus the subcarrier index n of the pilots .  estimates by using two consecutive OFDM blocks for an AWGN frequency- selective channel.  uses training symbols to jointly estimate the timing and frequency offset; this approach simplifies the receiver design. 2.4 Mitigation of Time-Varying Effects Time-varying channel impairments are caused by either a Doppler shift or a frequency offset. As was explained by Dr. Rappaport in class, the effect of a Doppler shift can be understood in terms of the Doppler frequency f d = ( f c *v )/ c , where f c is the carrier frequency, v is the velocity of the mobile node and c is the velocity of light. The impact of the frequency-offset fo can be modeled as a multiplicative factor of e j2 fot . Time-varying effects of the channel cause the OFDM signal to spread in frequency-domain and generate ICI . This ICI in the frequency-domain is analogous to ISI in time-domain; while ICI is caused by time-varying impairments, ISI is caused...
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- Spring '09