History 104 Exam 1 Review

History 104 Exam 1 Review - 1. Martin Luther 1st generation...

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1. Martin Luther 1 st generation reformer and lives from 1483 to 1546 Priest who went on to reform the catholic church Writes the “95 Theses on the Power of Indulgences” Reformed the catholic church because he had problems with the sale of indulgences and corruption Translates the bible into German Rejects sacraments and selects 3, baptism, penance, and communion Creates a new religion called Lutheranism and causes revolts to break out 2. Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 onwards makes his mission to preserve Catholicism wages war against Protestant Princes and doesn’t work conflict not only about religion but also power and land passes the Peace of Augsburg fails to preserve Catholicism as main religion 3. Peace of Augsburg Passed by Charles V in 1555 Recognizes the Lutheran church/faith in the Holy Roman Empire Allows priest to determine the dominant religion in the area, where they preach Allows religious freedom 4. John Calvin Most influential 2 nd generation reformer from 1509 to 1564 Starts as a Lutheran but later splits and creates a new religion called Calvinism Put out a book of ideas, which later becomes Calvinism Adds the concept of predestination Focus on the simplicity of life by learning scripture Emphasizes community Starts a new religion called Calvinism that spreads all over Europe after his death 5. Ulrich Zwingli 2 nd generation reformer from 1484 to 1531 in Switzerland Splits from Luther and develops his own ideas mainly to simplify religious beliefs and principles Tosses all sacraments out the window calling them symbolic Founded a theological school 6. Anabaptists Led by John Leyden in 1509 to 1536 Believed that only adults could understand the faith Completely separated from all forms of secular life Made punishable by death by Charles V
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Seized Munster in Holy Roman Empire and created New Jerusalem and only lasted 1 and half years Continues in little pockets in England 7. Huguenots French Calvinists Middle of 16 th century civil war breaks out in with Catholics causing religious and political violence Saint Bartholomew’s Massacre breaks out in August 1573 Cause violence in France which Catholic in order to gain religious freedom 8. Council of Trent Lasted from 1545 to 1563 Commissioned by Pope Paul III Reaffirms equal authority of scripture and of church tradition, the seven sacraments Corrects problems cited by Luther Ends pluralism, absenteeism, and the sale of indulgences 9. Edict of Nantes Issued in 1598 by King Henry the fourth Makes Catholicism the main religion of France Gives French Protestants the right to practice at home and in private areas on their own land 10. Ignatius Loyola Founder of the Jesuits Fights for the word of the church Praises blind faith 11. King Henry VII of England King of England from 1509 to 1547
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History 104 Exam 1 Review - 1. Martin Luther 1st generation...

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