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History 104 Exam 3 Outline

History 104 Exam 3 Outline - 1 Chapter 27 The Great Break...

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1 Chapter 27: The Great Break: War and Revolution I. The First World War (1914-1918) A. The Bismarckian system of alliances 1. Germany was the most powerful European country after 1871. 2. Bismarck sought to guarantee European peace through alliances. 3. The Three Emperors' League (Austria, Russia, and Germany) was created in 1873 to maintain the status quo; this was followed by an Austrian German Alliance of 1879 and the Alliance of the Three Emperors in 1881. 4. Because of tensions with France, Italy joined Germany and Austria in the Triple Alliance (1882). 5. In 1887, the Russian German Reinsurance Treaty promised neutrality by each state if the other were attacked. B. The rival blocs 1. William II dismissed Bismarck, and his termination of the German Russian Reinsurance Treaty led to a new Russian French alliance. 2. Under William II, the British German "natural alliance" deteriorated into a bitter rivalry. a. The Boer War, German envy of British imperialism, and economic and military rivalry drove the British and the Germans apart. b. Then Britain allied with Japan, turned to France, and formed the Anglo- French Entente of 1904, which further alienated Germany. c. Germany tested this entente in a diplomatic struggle over Morocco. d. The Algeciras Conference (1906) left Germany empty-handed and isolated. 3. As a result, Germany became increasingly distrustful, and other European countries began to see Germany as a threat. 4. German naval buildup, under Tirpitz, led to an arms race with Britain and a cycle of paranoia. C. The outbreak of war 1. Nationalism in the Balkans threatened the Ottoman Empire and European peace. 2. The 1878 Congress of Berlin resolved some of the Balkan problem by a partial division of Turkish (Ottoman) possessions in Europe; this included independence for Serbia, Rumania, and part of Bulgaria, and Austria got Bosnia and Herzegovina. 3. Then by 1903 Balkan issues were once again at a crisis point, with Serbia looking to expand and Austria looking to solidify its hold in Bosnia. 4. Austria's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 greatly angered Serbia, which was forced to turn southward against the Ottomans in its nationalistic desire to expand--this was the First Balkan War (1912).
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2 5. Serbia's dispute with Bulgaria over the spoils of victory led to the Second Balkan War in 1913. 6. The Balkan wars of 1912-1913 were a victory for Balkan nationalism. 7. The assassination of the Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand (1914) resulted in a war between Serbia and Austria as Austria tried to stem the rising tide of hostile nationalism. 8. Germany gave Austria unconditional support. 9. Military considerations dictated policy, and an all-European war resulted. a. Russia ordered full mobilization against Austria and Germany. b. Germany invaded France via Belgium. c. Great Britain joined France and declared war on Germany.
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