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Chapter 3 - Cell Structure and Function I. II. III. IV. V....

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Cell Structure and FunctionI.Cells are the building blocks of molecules of the human boyII.Biologist have developedcell theoryA.Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animalsB.Cells are the smallest functioning units of lifeC.Cells are produced through the division of preexisting cellsD.Each cell maintains homeostasisIII.Studying CellsA.The study of the structure and function of cells is calledcytology1.To study cell tissue and structure: electron (TEMS) and light microscope2.TEMS uses a focused beam of electrons… photographs of very thin sections andreveal fine details of cell membranes and intracellular structures3.SEMS provide less magnifcation but reveal 3-d nature of cell structuresa)Surface view, portion view, or extracellular structureIV.An overview of cell anatomyA.Our model body cell is surrounded by a water medium =extracellular fluid1.In most tissues is calledinterstitial fluidB.Cell membrane =separates the cell contents, orcytoplasm, from the EC fluidC.The cytoplasm surrounds thenucleus-the control center for cellular operations1.Divided intocytosol(liquid) andorganelles(intracellular structures)V.The Cytoplasm 70-77A.General term for material inside the cell, from the cell membrane to nucleus1.Contains cytosol and organellesB.Thecytosolis intracellular fluid1.Contains dissolved nutrients, ions, soluble and insoluble proteins2.Contains more K+ in the cell and fewer Na+; extracellular fluid: more Na+3.High concentration of dissolved proteins and carbs4.The insoluble materials are calledinclusionsa)Stored nutrients like glucogenC.Organelles1.Are internal structures that perform specific functions essential to normal cellstructure, maintenance, and metabolism2.membrane -enclosed organelles: nucleus, mitochondria, ER, golgi3.Nonmembranous organelles: cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, flagella,ribosomes, proteasomesD.The Cytoskeleton1.An internal protein framework of various threadlike filaments and hollow tubulesthat give cytoplasm strength and flexibility2.Microfilamentsa)Thinnest strands… usually composed of the proteinactinb)Attach the cell membrane to the underlying cytoplasm by formingconnections with proteins
c)Muscle cells: they interact withthick filaments,made up of the proteinmyosin(contractions3.Intermediate Filamentsa)Strengthen the cell and stabilize it's position with respect to surroundingcellsb)Unique functions(1)Keratin fibers resist stretching4.Microtubulesa)All body cells contain it- hollow tubes made from globular proteintubulinb)Form primary components of the cytoskeleton- giving strength andrigidityc)Cell division: form spindle fibers that moves chromosomes towards theends of a cellE.Microvilli1.Small finger-shaped projections on cell surfaces2.Engaged in absorbing materials from the extracellular fluida)Cells from digestive tract and kidneysF.Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella1.Centrioles:composed of short microtubules (cylinder shape)a)

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