Chem120A+Notes+10-22-08

Chem120A+Notes+10-22-08 - Chem120A Notes Term Symbols For...

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Chem120A Notes 10/22/08 Term Symbols For multi-electron atoms, describe state of electrons For n electrons, angular momentum of the system is a sum of the angular momentum of each electron = n i i L L r r ( 1 ) ; Ψ + = Ψ 2 2 ) 1 ( ˆ h l l L Ψ = Ψ z z L L ˆ ; Ψ is eigenfunction of (2) 2 ˆ L case: 1s 2 2s 2 [2p 3d] (excited Carbon atom) s electrons, L i = 0, p electrons, L i = 1, d electrons, L i = 2 L 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S P D F G H I K closed shells do not contribute to L of atom open shells determine Term Symbols For [2p 3d] ( 3 ) 3 2 1 max = + = + = = d p n i i L L L L r r L r is a vector, so it can have values of 3, 2, or 1, depending on the orientation of the individual orbital angular momentum vectors. Spin Electrons can have either +½ or -½ spin (spin up or spin down) = n i i s S v v ( 4 ) For [2p 3d] There are two possibilities for spin = ½ - ½ = 0 = ½ + ½ =1 (5) ↑↓ ↑↑ Term Symbols are given in the form ( 6 ) L S 1 2 + For [2p 3d] we have
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Chem120A+Notes+10-22-08 - Chem120A Notes Term Symbols For...

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